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The word "yoga" comes from Sanskrit "Yuj", meaning to yoke or to join together. Yoga is originated in India approximately 4,500 years ago and several styles of yoga continue to be practiced in the world to date. Yoga harmonizes body and mind to support health and healing. It is multi-dimensional in nature consisting of several elements. There are different types of Yoga styles including Raja yoga which involves mediation, and the eight phases of this yoga practice have considerably influenced other yoga styles. Hatha yoga, which emphasizes the notion of life energy (prana), is a driving force for the mind and body; practitioners of Hatha yoga attempt to control the mind by using the flow of prana. Ashtanga and Iyengar yoga are the subtypes of Hatha yoga. Practitioners of Ashtanga yoga try to achieve a deeper state of meditation by harmonizing breathing with movements, whereas the purpose of Iyengar yoga is to take control of the mind by using postural regulation. The detailed postures are the most significant feature of this yoga style. Bikram yoga is practiced under hot and humid conditions and laughter yoga combines laughter exercises with yogic breathing.
Yoga is now one of the most common forms of alternative and complementary medicine therapy which has gained popularity and is practiced all around the world. A disease that lasts for an elongated period like three months or more or a lifetime is considered a chronic illness. Yoga does not completely replace the traditional treatment of these ailments instead it is used as a complementary practice to regain an individual's overall health and well-being.
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In recent years, chronic illnesses like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and various other ailments have emerged as a matter of concern worldwide. And as per the studies, Yoga has had reportedly positive effects in decreasing patients' distress and improving their functional performance. It has been reported to improve various immunological parameters. Defensin antimicrobial peptides exert their effects by destroying the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayers belonging to microbes.
Yoga has had reportedly positive effects in decreasing patients' distress and improving their functional performance.Pexels
The practice of yoga is also associated with some profound biochemical changes which were demonstrated in a one-year trial of yoga training amongst military officers and the results were astounding, significant reductions in perceived exertion were reported. These individuals became more efficient in dealing with oxidative stress by increased metabolism of glutathione, increased production of antioxidant enzymes, and eliminating peroxidation products more efficiently. Practicing Yoga improves the breathing pattern of the patients into a slower and deeper rhythm, helping them to tolerate higher workloads. Patients who regularly practice yoga breathing exercises can control an attack of severe shortness of breath without having to seek medical assistance.
Numerous studies claim that yoga can be an effective treatment for "improving" a wide variety of conditions such as musculoskeletal problems, cardiopulmonary function, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, chronic low back pain, sleep problems, stress, depression, etc. The asanas are the aerobic components of yoga are associated with stimulating the central nervous system to release endorphins, monoamines, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Pranayama and dhyana regulate the emotional responses by reducing the sympathetic and increasing the parasympathetic tone of the body's response.
ALSO READ: Yoga: A tool for harmonious existence
Meditation has been positively associated with mental health. Length of lifetime yoga practices is significantly associated with better overall physical health, which suggests that yoga has a potential cumulative benefit over time. The most powerful aspect of every chronic illness physical or mental is the negative impact it has on an individual's mind and spirit. People suffering from a chronic disease can develop a sense of wellbeing through the proper practice of healing and restorative yoga. This positive state of being, in turn, allows the body to heal itself physically and drives it to its maximum capability with astounding and unbelievable results.
Keywords: Chronic Illness, Medicine, Yogic Practice, Alternative Treatment
Facebook must pay a $4.75 million fine and up to $9.5 million in back pay to eligible victims who say the company discriminated against U.S. workers in favor of foreign ones, the Justice Department announced Tuesday.
The discrimination took place from at least January 1, 2018, until at least September 18, 2019.
The Justice Department said Facebook "routinely refused" to recruit or consider U.S. workers, including U.S. citizens and nationals, asylees, refugees and lawful permanent residents, in favor of temporary visa holders. Facebook also helped the visa holders get their green cards, which allowed them to work permanently
In a separate settlement, the company also agreed to train its employees in anti-discrimination rules and conduct wider searches to fill jobs.
The fines and back pay are the largest civil awards ever given by the DOJ's civil rights division in its 35-year history.
"Facebook is not above the law and must comply with our nation's civil rights laws," Assistant Attorney General Kristen Clarke told reporters in a telephone conference.
"While we strongly believe we met the federal government's standards in our permanent labor certification [PERM] practices, we've reached agreements to end the ongoing litigation and move forward with our PERM program, which is an important part of our overall immigration program," a Facebook spokesperson said in a statement. "These resolutions will enable us to continue our focus on hiring the best builders from both the U.S. and around the world and supporting our internal community of highly skilled visa holders who are seeking permanent residence." (VOA/RN)
Keywords: Facebook, Employment, Justice Dept., Recruitment
Tomatoes are a staple in the Indian diet, be it a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian dish. It has to be a part of each meal in some form. As puree, paste, flavour, or diced into the dal. This tangy, sweet, and juicy ingredient was not always Indian. In fact, it did not even grow in India until the British sanctioned it. It is a product of colonization and has come a long way to become part of our everyday meals.
Originally, the tomato was considered poison. Its actual native is debatable. Some say it is European while others argue that is came from indigenous parts of Spain and Portugal. Either way, it is a plant species that is associated with the legendary Nightshade. It looks very similar to this poisonous plant that tomatoes were not even harvested for a long time, for fear of picking Nightshade instead. It was believed that Nightshade caused the blood to turn to acid and that tomatoes had the same property. Later research proved that the plant itself may be poisonous but the fruit is not.
The fruit if the woody nightshade plant Image source: Wikimedia Commons
Tomato is considered a fruit instead of a vegetable because it is cooked. But this theory has an interesting tale behind it. in the United States, in 1887, a tax was levied on the transport of vegetables, but not on fruits. By then, tomatoes had become a huge part of the American diet and traders could not afford to pay the ten percent duty. So, they began to call the large loads they transported fruits, just to avoid the tax due. In time, this is how the tomato came to be regarded. Some scientists went even further and stated that it is a berry. Botanists claim that since it is a part that grows from the flower's ovary and contains seeds, it is a fruit and not a vegetable. But this is a debate that will never end.
Incorporating tomatoes into the Indian diet must have happened so long ago that people do not remember a time without tomatoes, considering how it is the fundamental ingredient of most cuisines. The tomato has a name in every language as well, so the trading between nations, the voyages that brought them to India, and the decoding of the fruit-vegetable must have taken place far earlier than our ancestors remember. Or, perhaps we liked it so much that we decided to use it everywhere and make it our own. Nonetheless, it has been a delightful addition.
Keywords: Tomato, Fruit, Vegetable, Nightshade, Voyage, Staple
Every child who grew up in the 90s and the early 00s has certainly grown up around Tom and Jerry, the adorable, infamous cat-chases-mouse cartoon. The idea of naughtiness and playing mischief had the standards that this particular series set for children and defined how much wreckage was funny enough.
The show's creators, William Hanna and Joseph Barbera initially named their characters Jasper and Jinx. They did not plan for the fame that Tom and Jerry brought them when they released a movie by the name of "Puss Gets the Boot". This movie featured a certain cat and mouse who were a notorious pair, named Jasper and Jinx. When the movie became a hit, the names of the characters were changed and the show shot to fame.
Tom and Jerry became a go-to cartoon for children in the early 00s, and it was one of those shows with a firm foundation, that had already been in the running for decades. The original template had been planned nearly 80 years ago, and the makers did not change it. The music that was played in the many episodes, made a breakthrough in its own way. It is the most easily recognizable melody with utterly nostalgic associations.
Today, Tom and Jerry is still a household name in homes where children love cartoons Image credit: wikimedia commons
A set of supporting characters were defined for the show, to occasionally take the focus off the original pair. There was a large, black woman named Mammy Two Shoes and a bulldog who took Jerry's side. Mammy Two Shoes was discontinued because her character portrayed racist tendencies. A tall white woman replaced her, who was kinder and loved mice. Either of the women's faces was never revealed.
Today, Tom and Jerry is still a household name in homes where children love cartoons. There are a host of other shows besides this that aim to replicate the same aspects of the cartoon but do not come close at all. Despite the immense amount of violence in the show, it is a beloved pastime of parents and children alike.
Keywords: Tom and Jerry, Cartoon, Hanna and Barbera, Television