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In a first, researchers have found evidence of higher susceptibility of some babies to the Zika virus due to a genetic origin, a finding that may help in future vaccine strategy.
The findings, led by researchers from the University of Sao Paulo in Brazil, showed that nearly six to 12 percent of the babies born from mothers infected with Zika during pregnancy had the congenital Zika syndrome.
Congenital Zika syndrome is a unique pattern of birth defects found among foetuses and babies infected with Zika virus during pregnancy.
It is characterized by a partially collapsed skull, decreased brain tissue, damage (i.e., scarring, pigment changes) to the back of the eye, clubfoot, etc, according to the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
Congenital Zika syndrome causes early brain development impairment by affecting neural progenitor cells — that can lead to the cells that form the brain and other parts of the central nervous system.
The results, published in the journal Nature Communications, indicate that the development of the Zika syndrome in babies is not random, it depends on neural progenitor cells susceptibility.
It is possibly related to variants in several genes or to mechanisms that control gene expression and protein production.
“We demonstrated that the infection is not random. It reinforces our hypothesis of a genetic component increasing the susceptibility to congenital Zika syndrome,” said lead author Mayana Zatz from the varsity.
For the study, the team examined nine pairs of twins from six Brazilian states in which at least one baby had microcephaly.
They also studied 18 affected congenital Zika syndrome babies as compared to five unaffected twins and 609 controls.
From these babies, three pairs of non-identical, discordant twins had their blood samples collected, from which neural progenitor cells were derived.
Then, the researchers infected the progenitor cells with a Brazilian Zika virus strain.
Prior to Zika virus infection the progenitor cells from congenital Zika syndrome babies show a significantly different gene expression signature that is key to a neurodevelopmental programme.
These results confirmed the hypothesis of a genetic or epigenetic influence on susceptibility to congenital Zika syndrome and microcephaly.
However, a single gene cannot explain the cases of congenital Zika syndrome development nor the brain resistance to Zika virus, the researchers said.
“If the baby has these genetic susceptibility factors, we believe he will not have microcephaly unless he is infected by the Zika virus. Maybe we can identify these people and prioritize them in a future vaccine strategy,” Zatz noted.
Remember, the right language is what matters for your app in the first place.
Also Read: Deadliest Computer Viruses Of All Time
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and include some commercial links)
By- Joseph Collins
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. Utilities are among the agencies that place these devices in various locations such as houses, businesses, organizations, and commercial properties to charge for the power consumed. You can always know how much is gas or electric cheaper by contacting a utility company.
Electronic Energy Meters
When compared to traditional mechanical meters, these types of measuring equipment are more accurate, have a faster processing time, and are more trustworthy. When attached to a source, it uses less power and begins measuring immediately.
Analog or digital meters are both possible. Analog meters transform energy to proportionate frequency or pulse rate, which is then combined by counters inside the device. A high-end processor directly calculates power in a digital electric meter.
Logic circuits combine the power to obtain the energy as well as for testing and certification purposes. The frequency or pulse rate is then calculated.
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Smart Energy Meters
It is a cutting-edge metering technique that entails installing intelligent meters that read, process, and relay information to clients. It monitors energy usage, changes the supply to consumers remotely, and digitally manages the maximum energy usage.
For greater performance, smart metering systems make use of modern metering infrastructure system technology. These meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading.
In these smart meters, modems are utilized to enable communication technologies like phone, wireless, fiber cable, and power line communications. Another benefit of smart metering is that it eliminates the possibility of tampering with energy meters, which could lead to unlawful power usage.
An energy meter, also known as a Watt-Hour Meter, is a device that monitors the level of electrical energy or gas consumed by users. | Wikimedia
Working of The Meter
The conventional electric meter looks like a clock and keeps track of how much electricity you consume. A series of microscopic gears inside the meter moves as your home takes electricity from the power wires. The numbers on your meter that you notice when you look at it indicate the number of revolutions.
The quantity of electricity utilized determines the speed at which the rotations occur. The velocity of moving gas in the pipeline is measured by a gas meter. As the gas flow rate increases, the dials speed up.
ALSO READ: Electric Cars: The Newest Trend In India
How Often is Meter Read?
Unless the meter is a consumer-ready meter, the government will demand utility companies read user meters quarterly. If the consumer checks the meter, the utility is asked to read it at least once a year. Almost every month, many utilities try and read their customers' meters.
If the meter isn't read, the utility might issue an estimated charge based on the previous usage. Keep bushes and plants away from the meter and allow access to the meter reader if your meter is within your home. All utilities demand their meter readers to have an employment ID as a security measure.
Smart meters limit the number of times you have to go to the place to get your monthly reading. | Wikimedia
Responsibility of Meter
The utility provider is in charge of meter installation as well as the gas and electric lines that go up to the meter. The wires from the meter to the customer's premises are his responsibility.Please call your gas or electric utility if your meter is broken or displays evidence of tampering. Manipulation with a meter is prohibited and may result in service termination, legal punishment, or both.
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A hilarious rhyme that children often chant cheerily while jumping around, Jack and Jill is another example of the dark history covered up in light-hearted rhyme. Instead of England though, this is a rhyme that sheds light on the history of France.
Unlike other rhymes, the rhyme is part fiction and part history, since only the first two lines can be taken as an allusion to the past.
"Jack and Jill went up the hill to fetch a pail of water,
Jack fell down and broke his crown,
And Jill came tumbling after."
King Louis XIV ruled over France in the late 18th century and was called out for treason. He had failed to uphold the economy of France. His spouse Marie Antoinette was an equally powerful influence in the monarchy but could not do anything when her husband was convicted.
King Louis XIV of France Image source: wikimedia commons
The French are famous for the guillotine, and Louis XIV was beheaded on this device. This act of executing a monarch is why the rhyme has the line "Jack fell down and broke his crown". The guillotine, at this point in history, was kept outside the city, and the journey to it was long and tedious. It was ideally located on a hill, so that the entire city of Paris could witness the execution of the accused.
Louise XIV is believed to have been dressed and taken on the long journey up to the guillotine, where his hair was cut off and he had to renounce his authority. He bid farewell to his friends and was followed up the hill by a crowd holding pikes and bayonets, to prevent his escape. He was then executed as the last monarch of France.
Death by guillotine was the most terrifying way to execute a criminal Image source: wikimedia commons
A few months later, when the hue and cry of Louis XIV's death has died down a little, but the political situation of France was no better, his wife, Marie Antoinette was also executed at the guillotine for her role in the fall of France. And this event alludes to the line, "Jill came tumbling after".
The rest of the rhyme is a fictional account of a moralistic idea for children, as a way to tell them to be careful of where they engage in play. Since a large part of the rhyme seems like a story of two children who have had an accident in play, that is how the rhyme has survived and the history behind it, has been forgotten.
Keywords: Marie Antoinette, Louise XIV, Guillotine, France, Nursery Rhymes, Monarchy