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By Nithin Sridhar
An Analysis of Hindu Symbols and Practices: Part 6
In the last few months, the discourse on ‘beef’ has been much talked about and highlighted. Politicians, journalists, activists, and intellectuals have repeatedly stressed their ‘right’ to eat whatever food they desire. Massive outrage and beef parties have been organized to protest against the regressive attitude of ‘Hindutva forces’ that they perceive as being a threat to India’s liberalism.
Protest by Kerala’s MPs over police inspection of the Kerala House in New Delhi after getting complaints about cow-meat being served there, was one such incident of outrage. Beef parties were also arranged by political outfits in Kolkata, Kashmir and Kerala to protest against the inspection and bans.
Previously, a lawmaker in Kashmir had organized a beef party to protest against the beef ban in Jammu and Kashmir. After the ghastly Dadri Lynching incident over rumors about beef, numerous beef parties have been arranged to protest against the lynching. One such party was organized in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, where Hindus and Muslims equally consumed beef in protest. Last week, a group of poets, theatre artists, NGO’s, etc. took to the street and organized beef party to protest against growing intolerance across the country!
There is nothing wrong per se in people choosing to eat food of their choice including beef. But, when a particular choice of food is used to make a socio-political statement, when it is used to uphold alien ethos and degrade native cultural values, then, it becomes vital that such a political agenda is exposed.
The very concept of a party organized to celebrate ‘consumption of beef’ is not only offensive to the cultural values of Indians, it is an outright celebration of ‘violence’.
Indian culture is deeply rooted in the concept of ‘Ahimsa’ (Non-injury) as it considers plants, animals, and all life as a manifestation of divinity. It makes no distinction between secular and sacred. Instead, it perceives even the secular elements as having a sacred basis. Thus, no plant, no animal is considered inferior to humans, nor do humans own their lives.
This recognition of the universal presence of the Divine force has evolved into the concept of Ahimsa, wherein a stronger does not exploit the weaker, instead recognizes the rights of weaker to exist. Though, absolute non-injury is not possible in practice, Ahimsa is still the ideal that people should continuously thrive to attain. Thus, any party or gathering that celebrates the murder of an animal for the sake of taste and politics goes against the ethos of Ahimsa.
The question is, why should a protest against communal violence (even if the violence happened over rumor about beef) include consumption of beef? Are there no other ways of protest? What happened to candle light marches, which is otherwise a favorite means adopted by liberals?
The reality is that, the parties are actually not aimed at protesting against communal violence, or against the government’s attempts at curtailing the freedom to eat. These are all only excuses, only props that are being used. The real target is Sanatana Dharma which is the very foundation of Indian ethos and way of life.
There was outrage among Indian liberals when buffalos were sacrificed in Nepal during a Hindu ceremony. Liberals had become animal rights activists and Hindu religion was slammed for its violence. Yet, these same liberals oppose cow-protection and celebrate beef parties. Where is the concern for animal rights now?
The cows which are very calm, loving, and innocent by nature, must be the most unlucky animal among all animals across the world. They are unlucky at least in India. No animal rights activists, no liberals want to take up their issue, because unfortunately they have been associated with Hindu religion.
Every person who takes up the cause of cow-protection is slammed as a Hindutva activist, a political worker, etc. For example Prashanth Poojary. Many people who otherwise support animal rights and protest against killing of, say dogs, have no sympathy for cows.
Arguments after arguments are made about why cows must be killed and eaten and not protected. Typical arguments include, cow population is increasing very fast, maintaining cows will be economic burden, people are starving on streets so why waste money over Goshalas, etc.
This current liberal attitude towards animals in general and cows in particular is deeply rooted in a colonial education system that is still being practiced in India. The British, as part of their strategy to ‘civilize’ Indians, successfully dismantled Indian education system rooted in Indian ethos and replaced it by British education system built upon European, especially the Christian world view.
Thus, animals were no longer perceived as a manifestation of the divine. Instead, it was taught that, animals have been born so that they can be slaughtered, eaten, and their body parts used for various human luxuries.
The humans were no longer perceived as being connected to the nature through a divine bond. Instead, it was taught that, humans are the masters who can unscrupulously exploit everything available in nature for fulfilling one’s own perversions.
The concept of Ahimsa (non-injury), Dama (self-control), and Daya (compassion) were completely replaced by violence, uncontrolled desire, and indifference.
The British had a special loathing towards the Hindu veneration of cows, because they not only perceived cows as a stumbling block to their attempts of civilizing Indians to adopt Christian values, but the cows were also one of their chief sources of food.
It is this colonial education that has today manifested in the form of beef parties. The parties reveal a mindset that believes in human superiority and justifies human violence towards animals.
By celebrating ‘beef parties’ which are nothing but acts of violence committed against innocent cows, the liberals have once again made a political statement that in the liberal discourse, Hindus have no human rights and similarly, cows which are deeply associated with Hinduism have no animal right as well.
It is high time that, Indians renounce this colonial outlook and reclaim their native cultural ethos rooted in Ahimsa and Daya. Today, people have become highly ingratitude and selfish in nature. They use and exploit cows for their milk, but then send them away into slaughterhouses once the cows stop producing milk. This culture of violence, exploitation, and ingratitude must be renounced.
In the past, when rural society was predominant, almost every family used to own cows and bulls and they used to take good care of them. Cows and bulls were also the backbone of Indian economy.
Today in this highly urbanized scenario, things have greatly changed. But, changed times does not mean, people cannot return back to their own cultural values. Further, the role of cow in the economy and agriculture has not reduced. Cow milk is still a major source of nutrition.
Though every family may not be able to own a cow, they can at least feed cows that hungrily roam on the streets. Every family may not be able to individually do much to help cows, but people living in a locality or a housing society may build a cow-shelter (goshala) for the cows present in their area.
Many other measures at a larger scale may be slowly evolved that would not only protect the cows, but also will make it economically viable. A simple change in the mindset can go a long way in finding solutions to complex problems. In this case, all that is needed to begin with is the abandonment of the mindset rooted in celebration of violence and reclaiming of the Indian ethos rooted in Ahimsa (Non-injury) and Daya (Compassion).
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"In India, to be born as a man is a crime, to question a woman is an atrocious crime, and this all because of those women who keep suppressing men in the name of feminism."
Feminism, a worldwide movement that started to establish, define and defend equal rights for women in all sections- economically, politically, and socially. India, being a patriarchal society gives a gender advantage to the men in the society thus, Indian feminists sought to fight against the culture-specific issue for women in India. Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal. It states nowhere that women should get more wages than men, that women deserve more respect than men, that's pseudo-feminism.
Pseudo feminists state that women deserve more respect and rights, any other gender deserves no respect. They feel that women should be the ones ruling the world and at higher positions. When feminism takes a turn for extremities it becomes pseudo-feminism and people who label themselves as feminists will bash anyone who speaks against even the wrongdoings of a woman. They'll bash women who're wife and sisters for not speaking up and support any women criticizing political leaders even if it's completely irrational. This is where hypocrisy and pseudo-feminism merge with each other.
They take advantage of the rights given to women to protect themselves to threaten other genders. The rights given to women are supposed to make them feel reassured that they can reach out to the judiciary if their rights are being hampered not to threaten to make the victim sound like the culprit.
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Indian Feminist Movement has made significant progress however, even in the modern world women are still unsafe and are discriminated against when it comes to getting a job, land ownership, and access to education. While filling the official papers it is still asked "Wife of /Daughter of:….."
People in India still continue the practice of sex-selective abortion, abandoning the girl child, not letting girl child study instead they should learn household chores, they are seen as a burden to the family. Such injustices make feminism such an important movement, gender equality is worth fighting for to create a safe environment for women. Feminists over the years have been criticized for focusing on the rights of privileged women and not giving equal representation to poorer and lower caste women, which has led to separate caste-specific feminist organizations and movements.
Some notable milestones in the Feminist Movement
- Raja Ram Mohan Roy campaigned against Sati Pratha (practice in which a widow sacrificed herself by sitting atop her deceased husband's funeral pyre) and child marriage
- Savitribai Phule started the first school for girls at Bhidewada in Pune city in 1848.
- In 1972, SEWA, the biggest trade union for women was set up by Ela Bhatt for women working in the informal sector.
- The Chipko Movement was launched and led by women in 1973.
- #MeToo movement against sexual harassment and abuse was started in 2006 and revived in the year 2015.
People in India still continue the practice of sex-selective abortion, abandoning the girl child, not letting girl child study instead they should learn household chores, they are seen as a burden to the family.Unsplash
Feminism is often misunderstood as pseudo-feminism and hence, becomes the target for public hatred and is accused of wronging other genders under the façade of feminism. It is misunderstood by Indians as female domination instead of gender equality. Indian society and Indian feminists believe that only men are perpetrators of a heinous crime like rape and they refuse to even recognize the men who say they were raped and it's the toxic masculinity in the society that believes how can a woman rape a man? Reality is different from what we believe, women can be the perpetrator too, women threaten to file a case of domestic violence, or sexual assault against innocent people just to fulfill their ego.
Thankfully feminism and pseudo feminism are two separate concepts and feminism is just about equality and not judgment. Indian society and feminists actually need to understand the difference between the two and stop tarnishing the Feminist Movement as a whole.
Keywords: Feminism, World, India, Pseudo-Feminism, Gender
Kerala is a land of many good things. It has an abundance of nature, culture, art, and food. It is also a place of legend and myth, and is known for its popular folklore, the legend of Yakshi. This is not a popular tale outside the state, but it is common knowledge for travellers, especially those who fare through forests at night.
The legend of the yakshi is believed to be India's equivalent of the Romanian Dracula, except of course, the Yakshi is a female. Many Malayalis believe that the Yakshi wears a white saree and had long hair. She has a particular fragrance, which is believed to be the fragrance of the Indian devil-tree flowers. She seduces travellers with her beauty, and kills them brutally.
Yakshi idol in Veroor, Sri Dharamashastha temple Image source: wikimedia commons
The Yakshi is believed to live in a palm tree which can appear like a palace. Victims are taken here before they are killed. Travellers on highways are often advised not to stop near heavily forested areas, or speak to anyone who closely resembles a Yakshi. Some believe she can change form, while other hold to the belief that she doesn't. after securing her victim, the only trace left behind is body parts like hair, nails, and teeth.
They say, like other ghosts, a Yakshi's feet will not touch the ground. This is something to look out for. Mysterious deaths have been reported across the rural areas in Kerala, and all these have been attributed to the legend.
Keywords: Legends, Yakshi, Urban legend, Ghost, Kerala, Myth, Vampire
The LGBTQ+ acronym stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and others. In India LGBTQ+ community also include a specific social group, part religious cult, and part caste: the Hijras. They are culturally defined either as "neither men nor women" or as men who become women by adopting women's dress and behavior. Section 377 of the India Penal code that criminalized all sexual acts "against the order of nature" i.e. engaging in oral sex or anal sex along with other homosexual activities were against the law, ripping homosexual people off of their basic human rights. Thus, the Indian Supreme Court ruled a portion of Section 377 unconstitutional on 6th September 2018.
But the question is, "was India always against homosexuality"? Has the concept of homosexuality being unnatural existed forever? No, in Indian history and Hinduism homosexuality has never been an offense, in fact in several instances it has been depicted how people embraced their identity, be it sexual identity or gender identity. Section 377 was brought to India by the British in 1862, while India was colonized. Even after the Independence, it was only in 2018 that the Supreme Court ruled it as irrational and illogical.
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Homosexuality in Ancient India
When Supreme Court decriminalized homosexuality in India, there was an uproar about it being a western ideology and liberalism. But in reality, homosexuality has existed since the time of the Vedas. The Gay and Lesbian Vaishnava Association (GALVA) researched and discovered that it was around 3102 B.C. (during the Vedic Age) that homosexuality or non-normative sexual identity was recognized as "Tritiya Prakriti", or the third nature. Ancient India not only made mentions of homosexuality but accepted it as well.
Hinduism is the most vastly followed religion in India. Hinduism does not explicitly mention homosexuality however it does contain a homosexual theme and characters in its text. There have been various instances in our scriptures and texts that have introduced us to LGBT+ characters such as the androgynous form of Shiva and Parvati Ardhanariswara meaning "the half-female lord". One of the most popular and ancient texts on sexuality, eroticism, and emotional fulfillment of life, "Kamasutra" has a complete chapter dedicated to homosexuality and homosexual sex. Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities.
Numerous Hindu sculptures and temples have statues depicting homosexual activities. Facebook
Our Mughals were Queer
Mughals are often seen under the light of cruelty, rigid ethics, nobility, and polygamy. Simultaneously, Mughals are also the ones credited for the emergence of Sufism, abolished jizya tax, love beyond religion, classes, and gender.
In the Baburnama written in memoirs of our very first Mughal ruler Muhammad Babur, several instances documented Babur's infatuation and affection towards a teenage boy named Baburi. We also have multiple Persian couplets as evidence of Babur's affection for Baburi. Mughals engaged in homosexuality and pederasty, and they believed that later was a form of "pure love".
But as time passed homosexuality was suppressed more and more though people practiced it in secret if revealed they were punished. According to the Fatwa-e-Alamgiri Sharia-based text of the Mughal Empire, there is a common set of punishments for homosexuality, which could include 50 lashes for a slave, 100 for a free infidel, or death by stoning for a Muslim.
British Raj and Independence of India
In 1862, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code that criminalized homosexual sex came into force. Even after Independence in 1947, the section remained a part of the Indian Constitution. There were protests all over the country to give people of the LGBT+ community basic human rights but it was not until 2018 that The Supreme Court of India ruled the portion of Section 377 has unconstitutional and struck it off. One judge said the landmark decision would "pave the way for a better future.". With Section 377 gone are LGBT+ people allowed to fall in love freely? No, people are still afraid to love because of the stigma in our society when it comes to homosexuality; they are seen as lesser humans.
ALSO READ: Significant Support for Rights for LGBTQ+
Although the Supreme Court has decriminalized homosexual activities, same-sex marriage remains illegal in the country. Homophobia is still prevalent in India, and homosexual children would rather commit suicide than come out to society with their true identity, that's how harsh of a world we live in. Lacking support from family, society, or police, many gay rape victims do not report the crimes. In 1977, writer and Indian mathematician Shakuntla Devi published "The World of Homosexuals". It was the first study in the Indian context; the book contains interviews with homosexual men set in the years of Emergency. She wrote, "rather than pretending that homosexuals don't exist it is time we face the facts squarely in the eye and find room for homosexual people." We've had small victories in our fight against homophobia and getting LGBT+ community the rights they deserve as humans, but we still have a long and exhausting fight ahead of us.