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By Gaurav Sharma
Prime Minister Narendra Modi today signed a peace accord with the Naga insurgents in what was a landmark deal agreed upon almost 40 years after the failure of a similar treaty that was inked in Shillong in 1975.
Nagaland and other north-eastern states have been mired in violence ever since the Shillong Accord led to the splintering of the Naga rebel movement which started in the mid-twentieth century.
Naga rebel movement- The Beginning
The Naga rebel movement began a day before India’s independence on 15th August 1947. 17 major tribes and 20 major sub-tribes, although speaking different languages, united under the framework of the Naga National Council (NNC) and voiced boisterous calls for an independent Nagaland, a demand for which they vowed to fight tooth-and-nail.
Angami Zapu Phizo, NNC’s leader held a referendum in May 1951 claiming the 99 per cent of Nagas had voted for a sovereign Nagaland, a notion that the Indian government outrightly dismissed.
The following year NNC boycotted the general elections and instead launched a secessionist coup in what is now the oldest insurgency movement in India.
What began as sporadic attacks on police outposts and villages for funds and arms soon metamorphosed into an underground military movement known as Naga Federal Government(NMG) with its own Naga Federal Army (NFA).
To ameliorate the violent outpouring, the Indian government imposed the Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) on 11 September 1958, deeming the Seven sister states as “disturbed territory”.
In 1963, Assam was divided and Nagaland was declared an independent state. Peace was on the horizon when, in 1967, the NNC launched a paroxysm of violence on the Army units posted in the region.
Subsequently, the NMG and NFA were declared “unlawful associations” and a crackdown was launched by the Indian army on the rebels. In 1975, the Shillong Accord was signed between the Centre and the NNC, under which the rebel group accepted the Indian constitution and agreed to surrender their weapons.
Defining the turbulent nature of federalism in the north-east, the NNC fractured into another terror group called the National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN), a coterie of 140 activists who repudiated the Shillong Accord and refused to lay down the arms.
The prominent leaders under the group formed in 1980 included Thuengaling Muivah, Isak Chisi Swu and SS Khaplang.
The NSCN further bifurcated into the Konyak (IM faction) and the Tangkhul (K faction) in 1988. SS Khaplang and Khole Konyak headed the Konyaks whereas Isak Swu and Muivah led the Tangkhuls. The NSCN (IM) was formed with Angami Zapu Phizo’ s daughter as the Vice-Chairman of the organization.
NSCN’s (IM) claims
The NSCN (IM) claims that the Naga region was never a part of the Indian union and hence its fight for an independent Nagaland cannot be termed as a “secessionist” movement.
Furthermore, it expounds the theory that Nagaland was never “inherited” from the British and that the then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru was wrong in asserting such a notion.
Its demand is forthright in that the Naga-dominated areas of the districts of Senapati, Ukhrul, Tamenlong and Chandel should be made part of “Greater Nagalim”, a command which has been strongly resisted by the neighbouring states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Assam.
Meanwhile, the newly formed Naga Tribal Alliance has revolted against the NSCN (IM) backed Naga Hoba ( an outfit which professes to speak on behalf of the entire tribe) over the proposed reservations for Manipur-based Naga tribes.
What the deal portends
If the deal were to be passed in the Parliament, it holds the prospects of settling amicably the longstanding bitter standoff between the government and the insurgents.
The north-eastern states would benefit, particularly Nagaland and Manipur as they would open up to investments and development projects both from the Indian government as well as from international investors.
Rampant lawlessness including ghory activities such as kidnapping, gun-running, extortions and murders (funded from China) would be checked. Diplomatic ties with Myanmar would drastically change. Overall, India Act Policy would get a much needed boost.
Current state of affairs
To ensure peace and stability in the region, not only will the government have to deal with NSCN (IM) but will also have to address issues raised by the NSCN (K faction), which in collaboration with Ulfa and other militant groups forms the United Liberation Front of West South-East Asia.
So far despite numerous attempts, the Indian government has failed to integrate Nagaland into the mainland, although officially its stands as a part of the Indian union. The area is known to be restive with cases of murders and violence commonly reported from the region.
Apart from fighting a pitched battle for a separate state, the NSCN (IM) runs a parallel taxation structure under which businessmen, contractors and workers are levied hefty charges.
Dimapur, the largest state in Nagaland is witness to murders in broad daylight. On May 6, a mob broke open into Dimapur Central Jail and lynched a man accused of rape. The ghastly scenes were broadcast on media channels and raised a furore over the deteriorating law-and-order situation in the ‘falcon capital of the world’.
In view of such an abhorrent administrative in the north-east, the present peace deal can bring much succour to the escalating epidemic of violence, particularly when it is believed that the agreement will not involve redrawing of the state’s borders.
The battle for peace, far from being over, has only begun. Stability will depend on the ability of the Indian government to bring all stakeholders, including rival insurgents on board and striking a consensus before violence flares-up, again.
Prior to the brutal second wave of the pandemic, Prime Minister Narendra Modi had cautioned civil services probationers against developing the despised "babu mindset". He gave the invaluable piece of advice while addressing civil services probies at the well-known Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie via video-conferencing. He also outlined the keystone mantra of "minimum government and maximum governance".
With the recent collapse of the under-construction flyover in Bandra Kurla Complex which injured 14 labourers, it seems like the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) has got the PM's keystone mantra all wrong. The recent flyover collapse isn't an isolated incident, in fact, a month ago a similarly bemusing incident took place in the eastern part of the suburbs.
On 1st August 2021, the honourable Chief Minister of Maharashtra Shri. Uddhav Thackeray inaugurated a flyover in the eastern part of the suburbs. In his inaugural speech, he quipped the BMC to smoothen the rough road surface. The BMC swing into action and the surface of the flyover was swiftly re-worked upon. But, instead of smoothening the pre-existing rough surface, the shoddy repair work added to the problem. To top it all off, the BMC added a barrage of speed breakers and rumbler strips on the bridge.
The shoddy repair work combined with a plethora of speed breakers caused long congestions on the Mankhurd-Ghatkopher stretch, ultimately killing the purpose of building the bridge. Moreover, after numerous accidents of motorbikes skidding on the bridge during the rain and the subsequent death of a rider the bridge was closed for traffic.
The construction of the flyover commenced in February 2016 at an approved cost of ₹500 crores. The project was slated to be delivered in January 2019 but was delayed multiple times. The BMC had also made a design change in the flyover by adding a connector to the Deonar dumping ground due to which the construction cost of the flyover was increased to over ₹700 crore. The flyover was expected to bring relief to the traffic on Ghatkopar-Mankhurd Link Road but instead, it added to the existing traffic woes. On a concluding note, the maximum city of Mumbai runs on barely minimum governance, literally.
Keywords: Mumbai, Narendra Modi, Civil Services, Governance.
Along with the undeniable natural beauty, the Kashmir valley has developed a reputation for adventurous activities like trekking, hiking, and river rafting. Kashmir has maintained its charm, allowing us to time-travel into beautiful destinations which make one forget about the stress and worries of life. The hikes in Kashmir offer adventurers to go on a self-discovery trip through nature's lap over the mountains while taking in the breathtaking scenery that surrounds them on their journey. In addition to the hikes, there are many thrilling adventure activities, like rock climbing, rope climbing, etc. Trekking across the region of mountains and lakes will allow you to experience living in the "Paradise on Earth," and you wouldn't want to return to your regular life after that.
The following are some of the finest hiking destinations in Kashmir:
#1: Kashmir Great Lakes Trek: You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. In addition to three high-altitude passes and five river valley crossings, this is the only trip in the Himalayas that includes seven alpine lakes, each of which is a stunning shade of green, blue, or turquoise. The extravagance is limitless and breathtakingly stunning every day: infinite blue sky, a larger-than-life backdrop of the Rocky Mountains, colourful meadows overflowing with wildflowers, river crossings are just a few examples of what you will encounter during the trek.
You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. | Photo by prayer flags on Unsplash
#2: Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora Trek: The Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora trek is a one-of-a-kind experience that provides a glimpse into Kashmir's undiscovered regions. Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey that is the perfect experience for anyone looking to get away from the frantic tourist rush. This trek is a fascinating journey that allows nature enthusiasts to bask in the splendour of nature's grandeur. The trek goes over many high mountain passes, some as high as 4000 metres in elevation. The hiking route, in addition to providing breathtaking views of the magnificent Vishansar Lake, provides visitors with the chance to see more than 50 alpine lakes.
Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey. | Photo by YASER NABI MIR on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Top 10 Beautiful Sights To VIsit In Kashmir
#3: Tral-Narastan-Marsar Trek: The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. The hiking trail passes past a waving saffron field, beautiful meadows, and several streams. The path also crosses the Dachigam National Park, where there is an opportunity to see various animal species. Trekkers may take in spectacular views of the high mountains running parallel to them as they cut and pass through Narastan, a Hindu pilgrimage place.
The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. | Wikimedia Commons
#4: Chhatargul-Mahlish-Gangabal: The journey, which passes through beautiful locations such as Chattargul, Mahlish, Kolsar, and Trunkul, provides a peek into an utterly uninhabited wilderness of Kashmir. There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one trek into the alpine wilderness. Trekkers can also enjoy fishing in the crystal clear lakes, camping, or just seeing towering snow-capped mountains while on their journey.
There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one treks into the alpine wilderness. | Wikimedia Commons
#5: Kolahoi Base Camp Trek: The Kolahoi Base Camp trek in Kashmir has been famous since the early 1900s and has been a goal for many seasoned hikers from across the world. While Srinagar serves as the beginning point for the trip, it is in Aru Valley that the actual hiking begins. The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. The breathtaking sight of the peaks rising into the sky on the horizon of the Pirpanjal and Karakoram ranges is certainly worth capturing. It is considered to be one of the most popular treks in the Kashmir valley.
The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. | Wikimedia Commons
Kashmir's natural splendour, with its beautiful valleys and towering mountains, is really unlike anywhere. Trekking through various valleys and peaks while taking in the scenic beauty is something that always calms the heart and provides us with memories that we will remember for a lifetime.
Keywords: Kashmir, Lakes, Alpine, Hiking, Trekking, Treks, Sonamarg, Gangabal, Kolahoi, Chhatargul, Mahlish, Tral, Narastan, Marsar
The Pitru Paksha starts after the Full Moon day, and this day marks the beginning of the waning phase of the Lunar cycle. This event is roughly of 15-day period, and is of great significance. From this day, rituals like Tarpan or Tarpanam and Shradh are carried out to pay respects to dead relatives and ancestors.
It is believed that from the very first day till the last day, the unhappy souls of the deceased return to the Earth to see their family members. So, in order to ensure that the dead attain Moksha, i.e. to get liberation, family members of these souls quench their thirst and satisfy their hunger by performing the Pind Daan, which includes offering food consisting of cooked rice and black sesame seeds. The literal meaning of Pind Daan is the act of satisfying those who no longer exist physically.
For fifteen days, prayers are offered in temples and rituals are performed to help the souls get free from the cycle of birth, life, and death, and attain salvation.
At the same time, the Pitru Paksha is also an important period for people with Pitru Dosha, which means the curse imposed by the ancestors. Hence, in order to ask forgiveness, people perform Shradh rituals and offer food to the crows, who are considered as living beings that represent the dead. It is believed, if the crow eats the offered food, the ancestors are happy and pleased. But, if the crow doesn't eat the offered food and flies away, the ancestors are not happy.
The event of Pitru Paksha is widely observed by Hindus from all over the world, and they perform prayers and rituals in order to gain their ancestors blessings.