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By- Khushi Bisht
Revolutions are important in societal uprisings, and they are often aided by mass public dissent and anger. When a significant portion of the populace is dissatisfied with governmental, fiscal, and social systems, a revolution may occur. A vast number of individuals have common motives, which binds them all together. Multiple reasons lead to some type of revolt, such as economic woes and an outdated imperial framework that fuelled discrimination, etc.
The following are some of the most significant revolutions that shaped history:
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1. The American Revolution
The American Revolution, which lasted from 1775 to 1783, was one of the first revolutions in contemporary history. Conflicts arose between the British and their thirteen American colonies during this period. The colonists were becoming profoundly irritated by the heavy taxation. As demonstrators expressed their dissatisfaction with the tax hikes, outbreaks of violence erupted. On June 17, 1775, British colonists chose to create an army under the command of George Washington, which also went to the battlefield. The battle lasted for many years till George Washington’s forces, supported by the French military defeated Great Britain. Peace and harmony were established on September 3rd, 1783, and the United States was officially declared as an independent nation by Britain.
2. The French Revolution
The triumph of the American Revolution sparked the French Revolution, which occurred between 1789 and 1799. Except for the elite, who enjoyed luxurious and luxurious lives, the citizens of France were largely living in extreme poverty by the late eighteenth century. People were fed up with a monocracy that raised high tax rates but gave them little in exchange, so they switched their wrath on King Louis XVI. A vast number of civilians lost their lives in fighting during the Revolution, which was aggressive and brutal. Revolutionaries were influenced by the motto “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” to battle for massive social changes. As Napoleon Bonaparte took control in the late 1790s and proclaimed himself Emperor of France in 1804, the revolt finally ended.
3. The Haitian Revolution
Haiti was a French settlement known as Saint Domingue in 1791. Their agricultural sector was a major source of profit for France. They heavily relied on slave labor and captivated nearly 800,000 people. On August 27, 1791, influenced by the French Revolution, several captives stood up to combat their persecutors. Thousands of people died in the struggle for dominance and authority between various factions. At last, on January 1, 1804, the country finally gained independence and was renamed Haiti, making it the first black republic and nation established by slaves.
4. The Russian Revolution
One of the most volatile revolutionary developments of the 20th century was the Russian Revolution of 1917. Before 1917, Russia was governed by a czarist autocracy and an oppressive regime. The Petrograd Soviet was established by the military to force Czar Nicholas III to resign. Before the October Revolution, power and control were divided between a provincial council and the Petrograd Soviet. On the 24th and 25th of October, the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin, invaded the city and seized administration offices. They established a new regime under the dictatorship of Lenin. In 1923, Lenin’s Red Army triumphed over the Russian Civil War, forming the Soviet Union.
5. The Cuban Revolution
Between 1953 and 1959, Fidel Castro led a revolution against Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista to root out corruption. The insurgents, including Castro, attempted to attack the Moncada military base on July 26, 1953, but had been apprehended and imprisoned. With other refugees and prisoners, he established the 26th of July movement after his release in 1955. The revolutionaries went to the hills in November 1956 to battle Batista’s forces. The protesters began taking over cities in 1958, gaining momentum along the route to Havana, Cuba’s capital. On July 1, 1959, Batista was deposed and Castro was elected president. He later emerged as a communist government with strong links to the Soviet Union, and he was also a key player in the Cold War.
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6. The Digital Revolution
In the late 1950s, the Digital Revolution ushered in a new era of information. Computers were widely used in the 1980s, and the World Wide Web was introduced in 1992. The ways the world worked and interacted shifted dramatically in just a few decades.
Although revolutions entail several types, they usually share various features in common such as public discontent and common inspiration. Together, these elements have sparked some of human history’s greatest revolutions. Although diverse individuals, states, and civilizations were engaged in revolutions, the traits they shared helped them achieve disparities and show the solidity of humankind.
The Mysore kingdom became a popular tourist destination after India became an independent country. The Wodeyar dynasty who succeeded Tipu Sultan are still royalty, but they do not rule the state. Their heritage and culture have become what Karnataka is famous for.
Among the many things that Mysore offers to the state of Karnataka, the Mysore Peta is one. In north India, various cultures have their own headgears. They wear their traditional outfits on the days of festivities and ceremonies. Likewise, in the south, especially in Karnataka, the Mysore Peta is worn.
Made of the traditional Mysore silk, the Peta is usually a white turban decorated with a gold silk thread. It is worn by the Maharaja of Mysore during Dasara, or any other public appearance. This tradition has been preserved and is used all over the state by prominent leaders.
Politicians who want to appease older, more experienced politicians, offer a peta as a sign of honour. International guests are welcomed into the city with a peta and silk shawl. In universities, the peta is worn as a replacement to the black caps, as a sign of graduation and scholarship.
Even today, in the court of Mysore, petas are worn and given out as tokens of honour. The peta of the king varies from the ones a courtier wears, and even among them, there is a difference according to status. Petas are made by a particular family and passed down from generation to generation.
Keywords: Mysore kingdom, peta, silk, Wodeyar
Renowned feminist activist, author, and a face of the women's rights movement in India, Kamla Bhasin, passed away today morning at the age of 74.
The news of the same was shared by activist Kavita Srivastava on Twitter. The tweet said, "Kamla Bhasin, our dear friend, passed away around 3am today 25th Sept. This is a big setback for the women's movement in India and the South Asian region. She celebrated life whatever the adversity. Kamla you will always live in our hearts. In Sisterhood, which is in deep grief."
Bhasin, since the 1970s, has been an advocate of women's movement not just in India but other South Asian countries as well. In fact, in 2002, she founded a feminist network named as 'Sangat', which only motive was to work with underprivileged women from rural and tribal communities, often by using non-literary tools like plays, songs, and art.
Having a Master's degree in literature, Bhasin has written many books on gender theory and feminism, and interestingly, many of them have been translated into more than 30 languages. Another quick fact revolving around Bhasin is that the chant of 'Azadi', which is often heard at protests and rallies, was first popularised by her as feminist slogan against patriarchy.
Bhasin was awarded with the "Laadli Life Time Achievement Award" in the year 2017 for her commendable work.
Keywords: Kamla Bhasin, Feminism, India, Patriarchy, Literature, Feminist, Women, Rights
The 76th United Nations General Assembly session opened discussion on 14th September. The high-level General debate began on 21st September and it will continue till 27th September. The agenda of this year's UNGA session is 'Building Resilience through hope to recover from COVID-19, rebuild sustainably, respond to the needs of the planet, respect the rights of people, and revitalize the United Nations'. Only 109 heads of state and government will attend the session in person and approximately 60 other speakers will address the debate via pre-recorded video statements due to the ongoing pandemic.
PM Narendra Modi is the first world leader who has been scheduled to address the General Assembly. He landed in New York at 6:00 AM (IST). "Landed in New York City. Will be addressing the UNGA at 6:30 PM (IST) on the 25th," he tweeted. He was received at the airport by India's permanent representative to the UN ambassador Mr. T S Tirumurti and ambassador of India to the USA Mr. Taranjit Singh Sandhu.
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Before leaving for US PM Modi said, "I will be visiting the USA from 22-25 September 2021 at the invitation of His Excellency President Joe Biden of the United States of America. During my visit, I will review the India-US Comprehensive Global Strategic Partnership with President Biden and exchange views on regional and global issues of mutual interest".
During his 5-day visit to the US PM Modi held his first bilateral meeting with President Joe Biden in the oval office of the white house. It was their first in-person meet-up after meeting on virtual mode on three different occasions. He also held a meeting with US Vice President Kamala Harris joined by the Prime Minister of Australia Scott Morrison and Prime Minister of Japan Yoshihide Suga. He held one on one meeting with the CEOs of some top companies like Qualcomm, Adobe, First Solar, General Atomics, and Blackstone. PM Modi participated in the Quad Summit held on Friday, in which the fight against Covid, climate change counterterrorism, along free and open Indo-Pacific, were the key concerns of the discussion. He also took part in Covid-19 Global Summit hosted by US President Joe Biden. Pakistan's role in terrorism was also heavily discussed
PM held a meeting with US Vice President Kamala Harris joined by the Prime Minister of Australia and Japan. Twitter
Today, 25th September 2021 PM Narendra Modi will address the 76th UNGA session at 6:30 PM (IST) which will be live-streamed on various social media platforms like Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. PM Modi will talk about issues concerning pressing global challenges which will include the COVID-19 pandemic, the need to combat terrorism, climate change, and other important issues. It was in 2019 when PM Modi addressed the UN General Assembly physically as the pandemic went global in 2020, the 75th UNGA was held online where the speakers pre-recorded their speeches. In 2021, the option to pre-record statements has been kept open for the world leaders as the pandemic is worsening in some countries.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi will fly back to India after addressing the United Nations General Assembly.