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Researchers have identified specific areas of the brain that individually promote patience through the action of serotonin, a chemical that the body produces.
The research, published in the journal Science Advances, gains significance in view of the fact that learning to suppress the impulse for instant gratification is often vital for future success, but how patience is regulated in the brain remains poorly understood.
“Serotonin is one of the most famous neuromodulators of behavior, helping to regulate mood, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite,” said study co-author Katsuhiko Miyazaki from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University in Japan.
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The study on mice showed that serotonin-releasing neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) penetrate many other areas of the brain, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC).
“Our research shows that the release of this chemical messenger also plays a crucial role in promoting patience, increasing the time that mice are willing to wait for a food reward.”
The study draws heavily on previous research, where the unit used a powerful technique called optogenetics — using light to stimulate specific neurons in the brain — to establish a causal link between serotonin and patience.
In the previous study, the scientists focused on an area of the brain called the dorsal raphe nucleus — the central hub of serotonin-releasing neurons.
Neurons from the dorsal raphe nucleus reach out into other areas of the forebrain and in their most recent study, the scientists explored specifically which of these other brain areas contributed to regulating patience.
Want to read more in Hindi? Checkout: जब क्रिस कोलंबस ने किया ‘हैरी पॉटर’ के सेट पर अजीब पलों का सामना
The researchers found that serotonin stimulation in the orbitofrontal cortex is nearly as effective as that in the dorsal raphe nucleus for promoting waiting, while in the nucleus accumbens, it does not promote waiting.
They also found that serotonin stimulation in the medial prefrontal cortex promotes waiting only when the timing of future rewards is uncertain.
“These results suggest that serotonin in the mPFC affects the evaluation of time committed, while serotonin in the OFC is responsible for the overall valuation of delayed rewards,” the researchers wrote.
Ultimately, increasing our knowledge of how different areas of the brain are more or less affected by serotonin could have vital implications in the future development of drugs.
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For example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs that boost levels of serotonin in the brain and are used to treat depression.
“This is an area we are keen to explore in the future, by using depression models of mice,” said Miyazaki. (IANS)
By N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe
Life was moving at a fast pace for most of us and then the pandemic hit. The pace definitely slowed down and gave us an opportunity to look back at our lifestyle, routine and our most cherished old memories. 'Looking back' through your old photos on a phone versus flipping through a glossy photo album and reliving each memory? Getting teary eyed at some, and straight up howling with laughter at some others.
Today, advancement in technologies has opened up an ocean of possibilities. So how does one hold on these closest moments and memories in a thoroughly tangible way? Sachin Kataria, CEO, Zoomin shares all the minute details to make festive season personal.
Moving from gifts to personal stories: Gifts are no longer just confined to material items of a certain 'price tag'. Gifting someone is now seen as a chance to create a unique experience and splash of emotions that the receiver can enjoy for years to come. It's a fact that preserving memories is now a lot easier with delivery partners that can convert digital memories into actual personalised frames, albums and a host of memorabilia. And this makes it so much easier and quicker for you to hold meaningful memories close to your heart.
Gifts are no longer just confined to material items of a certain 'price tag'. | Photo by freestocks on Unsplash
Reframing moments of joy: It isn't always possible to create a photo album or a photo frame of all your special moments or even gift them all the time. This is where new age personalized gifting platforms are a boon. It is now possible to add a touch of personalization to any gift item making it that much more special and meaningful for both the giver and the receiver. One can choose from functional items such as coffee mugs or calendars to more stylized gifts like Canvas Prints and Photo décor and add a favorite memory to make the gift item personal and more valuable.
It isn't always possible to create a photo album or a photo frame of all your special moments or even gift them all the time. | Photo by Rirri on Unsplash
Festive season Fun: Why just adorn your house with lights and flowers? Add a touch of 'YOU' to plain walls and table tops and make them more intimate during special occasions. Some simple Photoprints and colorful, wall-safe washi tapes or magnetic ropes can add a touch of style without leaving any pin marks.
Why just adorn your house with lights and flowers? | Photo by Raj Rana on Unsplash
New-age apps offer products that are both affordable and of excellent quality - could there be a better deal than this? With the 2022 calendar and planner season around the corner, one can experiment and customize some cool calendars for friends, family, colleagues, business contacts etc. These will last on someone's wall (or table) for a few years. What's more, your gift will be more than just another product... it will be a canvas upon which a beautiful story unfolds! (IANS/ MBI)
(Keywords: flowers, photo album, personal, festive season, life, pandemic)
Boredom seems to be an unavoidable aspect of existence. Sure, you can pass the time on social media sites like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter when you’re bored but you can only browse for so long before things become monotonous and uninteresting. The internet has revolutionized the world in various ways, be it politics, shopping, or journalism, to name a few. It has also completely redefined how individuals spend their time.
If there is ever a point when the internet is the most beneficial, it’s for curing boredom. Internet is vast and has dozens of websites that may be used to break the monotony.
The internet is vast and has dozens of websites that may be used to break the monotony. | Photo by John Schnobrich on Unsplash
Take a look at these entertaining time-killing websites and put an end to boredom! Here’s the ultimate list of entertaining websites, ranging from intriguing, amusing, and unexpected time-wasters to strange websites to visit while bored.
#1 Find the Invisible Cow: Make sure to keep your volume high for this fun game. Hover your cursor over the screen as you hear the sounds changing their intensity. Keep searching for the cow and click when you think it’s there!
Keep searching for the cow and click when you think it’s there! | Scriptist
#2 Hacker Typer: Do you want to feel like one of those awesome hackers from a Bollywood film? Simply go to this website and smash the keys! As you pretend to be a spy hacking into some vital mainframe, this will thrill and entertain you.
Simply go to this website and smash the keys! | HackerTyper
#3 Wayback Machine: Take a look at some of your favourite websites before they were completely revamped with the help of this website. You only need to enter a URL and select a date. The Wayback Machine will then display a picture of the website from the specific day you’ve chosen.
Take a look at some of your favourite websites before they were completely revamped with the help of this website. | WaybackMachine
#4 The Useless Web: You go to this website, click a large button, and then get sent to a random website on the internet. You may be given a simple game to play, a rain of corn dogs, an endless horse, or you may witness a guy being smacked with an eel.
You go to this website, click a large button, and then get sent to a random website on the internet. | Tim Holma
#5 Pointer Pointer: To begin, move your cursor across the desktop, then wait 3 seconds for a picture of someone, object, or a group of people to emerge on your screen, pointing right at your cursor.
Move your cursor across the desktop and wait for a picture of someone, object, or a group of someone’s to emerge on your screen, pointing right at your cursor. | Pointer Pointer
So there you have it, five websites to cure your boredom from the depths of the internet.
(Keywords: Pointer Pointer, The Useless Web, Hacker Typer, Hacker Typer, Find the Invisible Cow, internet, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, social media, Boredom, Websites)