The world's first 'test tube baby was born 43 years ago. The 25th of July is designated as World IVF Day to commemorate the birth. NOVA IVF Fertility, one of India's leading chains of fertility centers, has released a report on the factors leading to infertility in the Delhi NCR region:
According to the Nova IVF's Insight Report :
. 56 percent of Delhi women are affected by infertility due to advanced maternal age and tubal factors
. PCOD and PCOS are the cause of infertility among 19 percent of women.
. During the pandemic in 2020, we observed that PCOS was particularly high and contributed as the second most factor for female infertility next to tubal factors.
. .PCOS and Tubal factors have seen an increasing trend in the last five years
. Other female fertility issues observed include Low ovarian reserve among women in the age group of 25-34, followed by Endometriosis
. A staggering increase in cases of a tubal factor in women affecting their fertility is seen in Delhi-NCR as compared to Southern, Eastern, or other parts of India
. 71 percent of couples preferred self-cycles, followed by 29 percent Donor cycle- This shows that even in the most challenging cases, advanced science and technology in embryology are used to do self-cycle by using a couple's egg and sperm
In terms of male fertility issues in Delhi NCR, "Azoospermia" (no sperm), a condition in which the male counterpart has no sperm, is a leading cause of infertility in males. It accounts for 25 percent, followed by "Asthenoteratospermia," which means low sperm motility, which accounts for 21 percent.
Male infertility can be caused by genetic factors, chemotherapy, previous testicular surgeries, and lifestyle factors such as excessive smoking, alcohol consumption, and the use of steroids for body/muscle building.
Observing the trends closely, a veteran in the fertility sector, Dr. Sonia Malik, Programme Director, Nova Southend Fertility and IVF, New Delhi said, "In India, infertility affects approx. 15 percent of Indian couples. Late marriages, stressful lifestyles, obesity, high junk food intake, smoking, alcoholism, and drug addiction contribute to the problem.
"Astoundingly, we have witnessed that tubal factors have accounted for the maximum percentage as compared to other factors leading to infertility. Northern regions of India like Delhi, Rajasthan, UP, and Haryana have reported the maximum number of Tuberculosis cases as compared to other parts of the country. "
While tuberculosis (TB) is an infection that is caused by bacteria that can settle in any part of the body, when it reaches the reproductive organs, it causes genital tuberculosis. Genital tuberculosis starts by infecting fallopian tubes in women. When this happens, the passage gets constricted which is called tubal obstruction.
Other tubal factors causing infertility are untreated STDs & STIs and Endometriosis. In India, there is a stigma attached, to infertility, couples need to think of infertility like any other medical issue and come forward to do fertility tests. We need to normalize taking up fertility treatments so that couples can achieve parenthood without any stigma.
Shobhit Agarwal, CEO, Nova IVF & fertility centers said, "With nearly 26 million people residing in the most diverse and cosmopolitan culture, astoundingly, Delhi has also been asserted as the lowest fertility rated state in India. According to the recent NFHS-5 survey, Delhi has a TFR of 1.5. Infertility is on the rise and is much prevalent in today's times."
According to the most recent National Family Health Survey (NFHS-5), the urban population's Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is at an all-time low of 1.6, while the rural population's TFR is 2.1. Indians have also become more open to fertility treatment in recent years, resulting in the proliferation of chains providing such services across the country.
The Union Cabinet introduced the ART bill, which will provide for the "safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services," such as egg or sperm donation, in-vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and gestational surrogacy. (AA/IANS)