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India’s Best-performing IITs still far behind in research performance of 2 top World Universities: Study
Kolkata, March 31, 2017: India’s best-performing IITs, including IIT-Kharagpur and IIT-Bombay, are far behind in research performance of the two top ranking world universities, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT-USA) and Nanyang Technological University (NTU Singapore), a computational analysis has revealed.
The study has highlighted that for IITs to be placed high among the world institutions, “a lot of effort and support” is required.
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“Of these two, NTU established in 1991 is younger than the five older IITs, which shows that the age of an institution alone does not necessarily matter for higher performance. If a new institution like NTU can achieve research performance levels to be included among top ranking world institutions, then why not some of the Indian IITs,” asked the study’s lead author, Vivek Kumar Singh, Department of Computer Science of the Banaras Hindu University.
The observations were based on a computational analysis of research performance of 16 “relatively older” Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) in the country. There are a total of 23 IITs in India at present.
The study was carried out by parsing through research publication data indexed in Web of Science. The data was examined to identify productivity, productivity per capita, rate of growth of research output, authorship and collaboration pattern, citation impact and discipline-wise research strengths of the different IITs.
The IITs, despite being the most prestigious institutions in India, do not rank high in top universities list of the world, the study notes.
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“Further, IITs are yet to match the research performance of the IISc (the Indian Institute of Science, which is an indigenously created institution unlike many older IITs established under foreign mentorship. The comparison indicates that IITs have a long way to go if they have to become comparable to the best institutions in the world in terms of research performance,” Singh said.
The first Indian Institute of Technology was established in 1951 at Kharagpur, followed by IIT Bombay (1958), IIT Madras (1959), IIT Kanpur (1959) and IIT Delhi (1961) – all through foreign collaboratiom. In 1961, the Institutes of Technology act was passed by Parliament which declared these institutions as institutes of national importance.
Almost three decades later, IIT Guwahati was established in 1994. This was followed by converting Roorkee University to IIT Roorkee in 2001.
During 2008-2012, nine more IITs were established at Bhubaneswar, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, Jodhpur, Patna, Ropar, Indore, Mandi and Varanasi).
And most recently, seven new IITs (at Palakkad, Tirupati, Dhanbad, Bhilai, Goa, Jammu and Dharwad) are proposed/established during 2015-16.
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As IITs are of different age, institutes were grouped into three different sets: old IITs (7 IITs which are at least 15 years old), new IITs (9 new IITs established during 2008-2012) and recent IITs (7 IITS established during 2015-16).
The analysis excludes the seven recent ones as they have come into existence within the last five years.
The researchers discovered a “substantial difference” in research performance levels of old IITs vis-a-vis the “new IITs.”
“This can be explained by the fact that new IITs are quite young for a research performance comparison with old IITs. Some new IITs, particularly the IITI (IIT-Indore) show promising research performance,” Singh said.
The other important conclusion is that majority of the research output from IITs is in physics, chemistry and mathematics disciplines while research in engineering disciplines lags behind substantially.
“IITs being primarily engineering and technology institutions, should produce more research work in core engineering disciplines,” Singh said.
The findings are published in March in Current Science. Sumit Kumar Banshal and Pranab Kumar Muhuri in Department of Computer Science, South Asian University, New Delhi and Aparna Basu, formerly at CSIR-NISTADS, collaborated on the study. (IANS)
Have you ever faced eye redness? Or have witnessed blurry or foggy vision? Or experiencing halos around lights? Or nausea and vomiting are very common for you. You may well be suffering from Glaucoma which needs immediate attention.
Glaucoma is the second most common causes of blindness worldwide, according to a report by World Health Organisation (WHO). Typically, it occurs in people with over the age of 60 however it can occur at any age. It is also estimated that globally 79.6 million people are affected with glaucoma, half of them being Asian population. While in India, around 11.9 million people suffer vision impairment and out of which 1.2 million cases are due to Glaucoma. It is a growing concern for the population in India. Even after these high numbers, the enormous majority remains undiagnosed, and untreated. More than 90 percent of cases of Glaucoma remain undiagnosed.
Glaucoma is the second most common causes of blindness worldwide, according to a report by World Health Organisation (WHO). | Wikimedia Commons
Glaucoma is a condition that damages the nerve of the eye. The increased pressure in the eye, which is known as intraocular pressure, can damage the optic nerve which is responsible for sending images to the brain. If the damage worsens, glaucoma can cause permanent vision loss or even total blindness within a few years. According to WHO, there are different kinds of glaucoma, though, the two most common are, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), having a slow and slow and asymptomatic onset, and angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), which is less common, yet more acute. Hence, it is important for everybody over the age of 40 years to have a regular eye check-up.
The eye disorder may be treated with the help of eye drops prescribed by Ophthalmologist. There are various options available to lower intraocular pressure to the desired level. Depending upon the need of the patient, doctor may recommend combinations of eye drops, but it is of utmost importance to use the drops on a regular basis. However, consulting a specialist should be the first priority if diagnosed with glaucoma, but most of the population will first opt for home remedies then will consult chemists' shops for medicines and if the issue is still not resolved then will they think of a specialist. There is a need to modify the mindset of the people and when it comes to sensory organs zero negligence rule should be followed.
The eye disorder may be treated with the help of eye drops prescribed by Ophthalmologist. | Photo by CDC on Unsplash
Awareness is the key to managing Glaucoma better. The need of the hour is to include eye care as part of the health check-up. Timely detection of Glaucoma will lead to proper medication and diagnosis by an Ophthalmologist. Talking about prevention, early detection will help in managing glaucoma before significant damage occurs. Glaucoma can be because of genetics as well hence knowing the family's eye history is important. Regular and moderate exercise may help prevent glaucoma by reducing eye pressure also eye drops can significantly reduce the risk that high pressure will progress to glaucoma.
Also, there are few home remedies that anyone can follow to avoid glaucoma. Consuming healthy food, using eyewear, avoiding head-down position, keeping oral hygienic, and protecting eyes from sunlight are a few of such remedies. One should be mindful of the fact that Glaucoma is irreversible blindness and awareness can help us in fighting it. Depending on the condition an Ophthalmologist may prescribe an oral medication or may suggest therapies. In severe conditions, doctors can also recommend surgeries like Laser therapy, Filtering surgery, Drainage tubes, minimally invasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: eye disorder, eye, India, World Health Organisation, blindness , foggy vision, eye redness, Glaucoma, Ophthalmologist
By Sakshi BakshiThe wedding season is in its full bloom, and almost every one of us has plans. In the spirit of celebration, it feels wrong to turn down our favourite appetizers, meals, and desserts! Our workout schedule and physical activities take a back seat. When it comes to maintaining your weight during wedding season, it can be challenging at times, but with the right amount of food intake and smart choices, it can all be kept in place. Sharing her personal insights on keeping our weight in place during the winter wedding season, Sakshi Bakshi, Founder of Nucros, has a few tips for all those health freaks out there!
- Keep your diet in check: Always make sure keep it light in the day before a heavy night out. This means incorporating as many complex carbohydrates as possible, to keep the hunger in check for a long time while still being low in calories. Fruit and vegetables in the form of salads, soups, smoothies, etc. should be the priority. Stay away from high-fat soups consisting of thick cream and instead indulging in soups with a lot of vegetable content in them.
Incorporate as many complex carbohydrates as possible, to keep the hunger in check for a long time while still being low in calories. | Photo by Myriam Zilles on Unsplash
- Choose lean proteins: While eating out, one should try to consume as much warm and heated food as possible in the winter season. An intake of lean protein, e.g., paneer, soya, dal, etc., for vegetarians and fish, chicken, etc., for non-vegetarians is advised.
- Balance calories: Stick to an easy breakfast and lunch which includes lots of fruit and vegetables. So even if dinner is heavy, the calorie intake for the whole day is maintained because breakfast and lunch balance it out. Eat a small meal before going out so that you don't binge.
- Eat in small quantities: At parties or if you are having a buffet, use a small quarter plate, which allows you to control the quantity better. So, even if you make 2-3 trips to the buffet, it helps in controlling the portions you consume.
- Stay Hydrated: One very important tip she shares is to stay during the dry winter season. Often one does not realise their thirst level in this dry season, which can negatively affect our health and cause problems such as headaches, gut issues, skin issues, etc. Drink at least one glass of water per hour -- around 12 to 16 glasses of water a day. If you are going out and consuming alcohol, she recommends drinking one glass of water alternately with a drink and having only 2-3 drinks of clear spirits with water to keep calories in check. (IANS/ MBI)
An intake of lean protein, e.g., paneer, soya, dal, etc., for vegetarians and fish, chicken, etc., for non-vegetarians is advised. | Photo by Sam Moqadam on Unsplash
Stick to an easy breakfast and lunch which includes lots of fruit and vegetables. | Photo by Tangerine Newt on Unsplash
At parties or if you are having a buffet, use a small quarter plate, which allows you to control the quantity better. | Photo by S O C I A L . C U T on Unsplash
Drink at least one glass of water per hour -- around 12 to 16 glasses of water a day. | Photo by Pratik Gupta on Unsplash
Keywords: eat, smart, wedding, season, hydrated, small quantities, calories, lean proteins, diet
Every year on December 1st, the world observes World AIDS Day. The purpose of the day, as the name implies, is to show support for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infected People and those who have died as a result of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). HIV continues to be a serious health concern that affects millions of individuals throughout the world. Despite the fact that the world has progressed significantly in recent decades, critical global objectives for 2020 have not been fulfilled.
“End inequalities. End AIDS” is the theme of World AIDS Day 2021. WHO and its partners are emphasizing the rising imbalances in access to essential HIV care, with a specific focus on those who have been left behind. The first World AIDS Day was observed in 1988, and it was also the first international day dedicated to global health. Every year on this day, organizations and individuals worldwide raise awareness about HIV, work to promote HIV information and awareness, speak out against HIV stigma, and push for a more aggressive attitude in the fight to end HIV.
AIDS is a protracted illness caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The immune system of the individual suffering from the condition is harmed, and the body’s ability to fight infections is reduced.
AIDS is a protracted illness caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). | Wikimedia Commons
Various reasons through which a person can get infected with AIDS:
- AIDS can be transmitted by blood, sperm, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal and rectal fluids, and infected women’s breast milk.
- Unprotected intercourse with an infected individual can potentially spread the disease to another person.
- Sharing syringes, blades, and knives with an infected individual can lead to disease transmission.
- Consuming food that has been pre-chewed by an HIV-positive individual. When infectious blood from a caregiver's lips combines with the food during chewing, contamination develops. Infants are the only ones who have been affected with this type of contamination so far.
Sharing syringes, blades, and knives with an infected individual can lead to disease transmission. | Wikimedia Commons
Is AIDS curable?
Although the condition is not totally curable, several preventative steps may be taken in everyday life to avoid contracting it. To lower the risk of transmission, Anti-Retroviral therapy (ART) and HIV medications are used. Using protection during sexual intercourse, avoiding sharing needles, blades, and other items with other individuals, and maintaining body immunity are some prevention strategies against HIV/AIDS.
What can I do to observe World AIDS Day?
- Buy a red ribbon: World AIDS Day provides an opportunity to express solidarity with the millions of HIV-positive people across the globe; the majority of individuals do this by wearing a red HIV awareness ribbon on that particular day.
World AIDS Day provides a chance to express solidarity with the millions of HIV-positive people throughout the world. | Flickr
- Fundraise: Seek financial support for the cause either online or by organizing offline campaigns. HIV AIDS patients are often mistreated or bullied by people; a little help from anyone can change their life around. Many NGOs are battling HIV and assisting those living with the disease; you may contact one of these organizations and assist them in various ways.
Many NGOs are battling HIV and assisting those living with the disease; you may contact one of these organizations and assist them in various ways. | Pixabay
We can work together to end HIV by empowering communities, partners, and healthcare professionals to encourage HIV testing, prevention, and treatment and eradicate HIV stigma.
(Keywords: HIV/AIDS, World AIDS Day, December 1, HIV, Stigma, Awareness)