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By Nithin Sridhar
In 2011, UNESCO had added Xoan singing, a genre of Vietnamese folk music to its list of “Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding”.
The list includes not only those art forms that have intangible heritage value but also those that are on the verge of extinction and hence need immediate safeguarding.
Vietnam took it as a challenge and after four years, the dying folk music has witnessed a massive revival, thanks to the efforts by the government and the people.
India can learn a few lessons from this huge achievement of Vietnam in reviving and reclaiming their ancient heritage.
What is Xoan Singing?
Xoan Singing is a traditional ceremonial art that combines both music and dance. It originated around 4000 years ago during the time of Hung Kings. In essence, it is spring singing that originated in and is unique to Phú Thọ Province of Vietnam.
A popular story regarding the origination of Xoan singing is that when the pregnant wife of a Hung King whose name was Xoan (meaning spring) was unable to deliver, the King invited a beautiful girl named QuếHoa to sing and dance that made the Queen relax and give birth to three sons.
The King asked QueHoa to teach singing to his daughters. Henceforth, the tradition of Xoan singing started. Xoan, literally meaning spring, was called so because it was sung first time during spring or because the Queen’s name was Xoan.
There are three types of Xoan singing- those that are sung in honor of Hung kings and guardian spirits, those that are sung as a prayer for good crop and health and those that are song as part of festive courtship.
Another classification of Xoan singing is based on melody- recital melody (hat noi), chanting melody (hat ngamngoi) and praising melody (hat xuong).
Originally, there were four Xoan music guilds originating in the four villages of Phú Thọ Province- PhuDuc, Kim Doi, Thet, and An Thai.
Each guild consists of around 15-18 people headed by a leader called trùm. The tone was set by male instrumentalists called kép and the singing was done by female members called đào. The singing and dance was accompanied by various musical instruments like clappers and drums.
What did Vietnam do to revive Xoan Singing?
This Xoan singing was about to die out when UNESCO decided to add the folk music to its list of Intangible cultural heritage.
In 2012, there were only 120 professional practitioners of Xoan singing and just 13 temples where they could perform. However, today, there are a total of 115 Xoan clubs with nearly 1300 members in Phú Thọ Province.
This phenomenal rise was possible due to dedicated and sustained efforts of the government and the wholesome support of the people.
In 2013, PhuTho People’s Committee built a US$7.85 million project-“Maintaining and Developing Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity – Xoan Singing in Phu Tho”which was funded by the Government.
Xoan singing has been introduced in the school curriculum and various performances of Xoan singing has been organized by the Department of Culture, Sports and Tourism.
The department has also collaborated with experts and musicians to collect and publish various CD’s and books on Xoan singing. Further, the Xoan singers are being financially supported and various training classes have been organized.
Through a series of collaborative efforts involving all parties- artists, writers, musicians, government and the general public, Vietnam has been successful in reviving a dying musical heritage.
Now, the People’s Committee of Phu Tho is preparing to request UNESCO to remove Xoan singing from the list of “Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding” to a list of “Intangible Cultural Heritage”, Xoan singing, though endangered, has come out of the threat of immediate extinction.
The Indian Situation
India is the land of Sanatana Dharma that is rooted in Vedic philosophy and life values. Vedas are not only a heritage of India, but its very life-force. The art, music, religion, culture and society as a whole derives its inspiration as well as its existence from the Vedas. Manu has called the Vedas as the source of all righteous values.
The Vedas are considered as “Apaurusheya” or “without human origin” whose truths were realized first hand by the Rishis.
Veda Vyasa divided a single Veda into four parts- the Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samaveda and the Atharvaveda. Each Veda in turn contains four parts- the Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and the Upanishads.
Patanjali Mahabhshya states that there were 21 Shakhas of Rigveda, 9 of Atharvaveda, 101 of Yajurveda and a 1000 shakhas of Samaveda, taking the total number of Shakhas to 1131.
A Shakha is basically a branch or a particular school of recitation that has been passed on from father to son and/or teacher to student. Hence, there were a total 1131 branches of Vedas that were transmitted and preserved according to Patanjali. Of these 1131 shakhas, only 14 of them survive to this day.
The 14 Shakhas that are still alive are-
- Rigveda- Shaakala, Bāṣhkala and SaamkhyaayanaShakhas.
- SuklaYajurveda- Kanva and MadhyandinaShakhas
- Krishna Yajurveda- Taittirīya, Maitrayani, Kaṭhaka andKapiṣṭhalaShakhas
- Samaveda- Kauthuma, Jaimini and Rāṇāyanīya
- Atharvaveda-Paippalāda and Shaunakīya
Even the existing Shakhas are dying out fast as there are not many takers. There are only a handful of Vedic Gukulams run by private organizations that are trying to protect and transmit the knowledge of the Vedas.
The situation is still deplorable with regard to study of Samkhya, Mimamsa or Tarka.
Sanskrit has been reduced to a third language that is optional for people to study. Though government has set up various organizations for propagation of Sanskrit as well as Vedic studies, their impact has been minimal.
With every passing day, the number of people interested in Vedic learning is dwindling and those who do learn and teach Vedas are facing innumerable hardships, socially and economically.
UNESCO has added Vedic chanting to its List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. But if things are not improved, very soon the Vedic chanting and the tradition of transmission of Vedic knowledge will sink into oblivion.
What can India learn from Xaon revival?
India can learn various lessons from Xaon revival in Vietnam. Xaon revival was seen as reclaiming and preserving ancient heritage by the Vietnamese. They identified with their traditions and culture and chose to preserve and propagate the same.
It was seen as an attempt at writing the countries’ narrative and upholding of its ancient heritage.
India must begin to see its diverse cultural, religious and spiritual elements as a heritage to be practiced and propagated and not as a burden from the past that must be dumped.
Further, Indians must realize that practice and propagation of these elements are very important for writing India’s own grand narrative.
Some of the steps that India can adopt to revive Vedic learning are:
- The propagation of Sanskrit must be promoted and encouraged as without Sanskrit, Vedic preservation is impossible.Various activities and training programs must be taken up to help children learn and converse in Sanskrit.
Many private organizations like Samskrit Bharati are already conducting spoken Sanskrit sessions. Similar measures need to be adopted by the government nationally.
Additionally, Sanskrit conversation competitions, Sanskrit Drama and Essay competitions etc. must be organized and promoted. Conversational Sanskrit must be introduced in School curriculum and students must be encouraged to take it up.
- The government should revive the Traditional Gurukula system. It must set up various Gurukulams across the country to teach Vedas as well as other traditional Indian knowledge systems like Tarka, Vedanta, Mimamsa, Ayurveda, Tantra, Agama, Samkhya, Yoga etc.
Private organizations and religious institutions that are involved in these tasks are to be financially supported.
- Further, the students who pass out of these Gurukulams, must be supported by various means.
Some of them may be absorbed into various universities and research institutions and some others into various pathashalas.
Students who wish to practice Vedic karmas must also be financially supported as Vedic Karmas are inseparable from Vedic knowledge.
- The government should set up institutes or start courses in universities that teach various aspects of Indian Knowledge systems, be it art, music or philosophy. These institutes should collaborate with traditional gurukulams to train students in both modern academics as well as traditional knowledge.
- Nation-wide seminars, debates and discussions must be organized on various aspects of Indic knowledge both in traditional format as well as modern format. This will result in exchange of ideas between modern scholars and traditional practitioners.
- Original research must be conducted in various topics ranging from religious to scientific in Sanskrit. Journals must be brought out that will publish these Sanskrit research papers.
The measures, if implemented in a systematic and sustained manner, will bring out a gradual but definite revival of Vedas as well as various allied elements like Sanskrit and Yoga
Along with the undeniable natural beauty, the Kashmir valley has developed a reputation for adventurous activities like trekking, hiking, and river rafting. Kashmir has maintained its charm, allowing us to time-travel into beautiful destinations which make one forget about the stress and worries of life. The hikes in Kashmir offer adventurers to go on a self-discovery trip through nature's lap over the mountains while taking in the breathtaking scenery that surrounds them on their journey. In addition to the hikes, there are many thrilling adventure activities, like rock climbing, rope climbing, etc. Trekking across the region of mountains and lakes will allow you to experience living in the "Paradise on Earth," and you wouldn't want to return to your regular life after that.
The following are some of the finest hiking destinations in Kashmir:
#1: Kashmir Great Lakes Trek: You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. In addition to three high-altitude passes and five river valley crossings, this is the only trip in the Himalayas that includes seven alpine lakes, each of which is a stunning shade of green, blue, or turquoise. The extravagance is limitless and breathtakingly stunning every day: infinite blue sky, a larger-than-life backdrop of the Rocky Mountains, colourful meadows overflowing with wildflowers, river crossings are just a few examples of what you will encounter during the trek.
You will be transported to a heavenly and unseen aspect of Kashmir on the Kashmir Great Lakes Trek. | Photo by prayer flags on Unsplash
#2: Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora Trek: The Sonamarg-Vishansar-Bandipora trek is a one-of-a-kind experience that provides a glimpse into Kashmir's undiscovered regions. Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey that is the perfect experience for anyone looking to get away from the frantic tourist rush. This trek is a fascinating journey that allows nature enthusiasts to bask in the splendour of nature's grandeur. The trek goes over many high mountain passes, some as high as 4000 metres in elevation. The hiking route, in addition to providing breathtaking views of the magnificent Vishansar Lake, provides visitors with the chance to see more than 50 alpine lakes.
Sonamarg, famously known as the Meadows of Gold, is the starting point for this fascinating journey. | Photo by YASER NABI MIR on Unsplash
ALSO READ: Top 10 Beautiful Sights To VIsit In Kashmir
#3: Tral-Narastan-Marsar Trek: The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. The hiking trail passes past a waving saffron field, beautiful meadows, and several streams. The path also crosses the Dachigam National Park, where there is an opportunity to see various animal species. Trekkers may take in spectacular views of the high mountains running parallel to them as they cut and pass through Narastan, a Hindu pilgrimage place.
The Tral-Narastan-Marsar trek is filled with a range of exciting experiences from beginning to end. | Wikimedia Commons
#4: Chhatargul-Mahlish-Gangabal: The journey, which passes through beautiful locations such as Chattargul, Mahlish, Kolsar, and Trunkul, provides a peek into an utterly uninhabited wilderness of Kashmir. There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one trek into the alpine wilderness. Trekkers can also enjoy fishing in the crystal clear lakes, camping, or just seeing towering snow-capped mountains while on their journey.
There are lakes and meadows adorned with flowers along the route as one treks into the alpine wilderness. | Wikimedia Commons
#5: Kolahoi Base Camp Trek: The Kolahoi Base Camp trek in Kashmir has been famous since the early 1900s and has been a goal for many seasoned hikers from across the world. While Srinagar serves as the beginning point for the trip, it is in Aru Valley that the actual hiking begins. The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. The breathtaking sight of the peaks rising into the sky on the horizon of the Pirpanjal and Karakoram ranges is certainly worth capturing. It is considered to be one of the most popular treks in the Kashmir valley.
The Kolahoi Base Camp Trek is a gentle adventure that is ideal for novices and families with children. | Wikimedia Commons
Kashmir's natural splendour, with its beautiful valleys and towering mountains, is really unlike anywhere. Trekking through various valleys and peaks while taking in the scenic beauty is something that always calms the heart and provides us with memories that we will remember for a lifetime.
Keywords: Kashmir, Lakes, Alpine, Hiking, Trekking, Treks, Sonamarg, Gangabal, Kolahoi, Chhatargul, Mahlish, Tral, Narastan, Marsar
The Pitru Paksha starts after the Full Moon day, and this day marks the beginning of the waning phase of the Lunar cycle. This event is roughly of 15-day period, and is of great significance. From this day, rituals like Tarpan or Tarpanam and Shradh are carried out to pay respects to dead relatives and ancestors.
It is believed that from the very first day till the last day, the unhappy souls of the deceased return to the Earth to see their family members. So, in order to ensure that the dead attain Moksha, i.e. to get liberation, family members of these souls quench their thirst and satisfy their hunger by performing the Pind Daan, which includes offering food consisting of cooked rice and black sesame seeds. The literal meaning of Pind Daan is the act of satisfying those who no longer exist physically.
For fifteen days, prayers are offered in temples and rituals are performed to help the souls get free from the cycle of birth, life, and death, and attain salvation.
At the same time, the Pitru Paksha is also an important period for people with Pitru Dosha, which means the curse imposed by the ancestors. Hence, in order to ask forgiveness, people perform Shradh rituals and offer food to the crows, who are considered as living beings that represent the dead. It is believed, if the crow eats the offered food, the ancestors are happy and pleased. But, if the crow doesn't eat the offered food and flies away, the ancestors are not happy.
The event of Pitru Paksha is widely observed by Hindus from all over the world, and they perform prayers and rituals in order to gain their ancestors blessings.
At the heart of Bangalore city, a large 300-acre space of lush greenery and heritage stands as a symbol of the city's past, present, and future. Cubbon Park is every child's favourite park, every Bangalorean's haven of fresh air, and altogether, the city's pride.
It stands testament to the past, in terms of the diversity of flora it houses. Bangalore traffic in the recent past has grown into a menace, but the stretch between MG Road and Cubbon Park is always a pleasurable place to stop and wait for the signal to turn green. The gust of wind that blows here, and the smell of mud, coupled with floral scents instantly transports citizens to Old Bangalore, where the weather was fine, and the trees loomed over roads with thick canopies that did not even allow rainwater to penetrate. Cubbon Park is also a historical site, and one of the few remaining monuments of colonial heritage in Central Bangalore. It houses many statues and among them, the most famous is that of Queen Victoria, which faces the St. Mark's Square.
The stretch outside Cubbon Park is cool and well-shaded from the canopy of trees over it. Image source: wikimedia commons
At present, Cubbon Park is known for the cultural hub that it is. It houses Jawahar Bal Bhavan, which is a large theatre that hosts film festivals through the year. Festivals, poetry open mics, and other such shows are conducted on the lawns every Sunday. A small stream runs through the park, where boat rides are held occasionally when the water level is high enough. There is a children's park on one corner, and a government-maintained aquarium, two-storeys tall, with exotic fish.
The Park has been renamed many times in the past. It was originally named Meade's Park, after Sir John Meade, the acting commissioner of Mysore in 1870. It was later changed to Cubbon Park after Sir Mark Cubbon, who was the longest-serving commissioner of the Mysore state. In 1927, the park was renamed after the Mysore Maharaja Sri Krishna Wodeyar, to celebrate his silver jubilee, since the park was developed during the reign of his ancestors. Even though it is officially named Sri Chamrajendra Park, it is still known as Cubbon Park all over the city. In fact, Bangalore was alluded the sobriquet of 'Garden City' because of the rich botanical diversity of this park.
Art Installation at Cubbon Park Image source: wikimedia commons
In many parts of the country, governments have renamed structures, places, and cities to remove traces of colonialism. But, in a city like Bangalore, there is too much evidence of the British rule. Many of the most prominent attractions of the city are known by their British identities despite the change in name. Even the city's name continues to be Bangalore, despite having been changed to Bengaluru. Last year, the British era and its achievements were celebrated in Cubbon Park when Sir Mark Cubbon's statue was moved from the grounds of the Karnataka High Court and placed in the Park.
Keywords: Cubbon Park, Mark Cubbon, British Colonialism, Cultural hub, Garden City