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History of Kohinoor as explained by William Dalrymple

There is no doubt, the Antique rock has a long and complicating history and it is difficult to resolve to which country it belongs to

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Kohinoor Diamond Source: Wikimedia commons
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By Akanksha Sharma

For the past few days, the precious Kohinoor Diamond has been hitting the news again. The Indian govt. informed the court that, the eminent colorless diamond was ‘gifted’ and not forcefully taken away by the British. This revelation by the govt.  has acted as an incentive towards the ongoing debate, whether the famous stone should be returned to India or not?

The Historian/Author William Dalrymple who is working on his upcoming non-fiction history book Kohinoor said, “While I was working on my previous book on Shah Shujah Durrani’s (ruler of the Durrani empire in present day Afghanistan from 1803-1809) life, I got some Persian manuscripts from Kabul. I came across this chapter between the time Nadir Shah (Shah of Persia) left India and when the diamond came back to India with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. So this was information on the Kohinoor that people did not know about, through Afghan Sources”.

 

Kohinoor, Koh-i-noor, Kohinoor diamond, William Dalrymple, Kohinoor William Dalrymple, Kohinoor Dalrymple, Kohinoor history, Ranjit Singh, Shah Shujah Durrani, Kohinoor Ranjit Singh, Kohinoor Shah Shujah Durrani, Kohinoor Nader Shah
Shah Shujah Durrani (left) and Maharaja Ranjit Singh (right) Source: Wikimedia Commons

While doing his research on Kohinoor to understand its complex history, he found manuscripts from Afghanistan and further explained “The Indian case rests on the claim that the British took away the diamond by force. I think there is no doubt about that. It is complete nonsense that, it was gifted by Maharaja Ranjit Singh of the Sikhs. Maharaja Ranjit Singh kept it with him his whole life. It was during the regency of his son Duleep Singh, that the diamond was taken away. There is not much to dispute about that. It was part of the peace treaty of the British and was handed over in the process of the defeat of the Sikhs as one of the spoils going to the victor.”

Related articleIndia says British Queen should keep its Koh-i-Noor

“However, what complicates this is that the diamond did not come peacefully to Ranjit Singh either. Indians claim that Shah Shujah gave the diamond to Maharaja Ranjit Singh. But Shah Shujah’s autobiography clearly mentions that his son was tortured by Maharaja Ranjit Singh before he took away the diamond. So if the Indian case rests on the claim that the British took it by force, so did the Indians.”

By the mid-19th century when it reached the hands of British, it has already been possessed by many leaders and kings, all of which were not ‘Indian’. “By the time the diamond passed from the Afghans to Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the diamond had been with the Afghans of the Durrani Empire for two to three generations. It kept getting transferred peaceably through each generation and finally came into the possession of Shah Shujah. Shah Shujah in his autobiography mentions that his son was tortured and that he was starved for days by Ranjit Singh in order to get the diamond,” explained Dalrymple.

According to the Dalrymple’s perspective, besides India there are other countries also who can lay claims on Diamond like Afghanistan and Iran. During the time when it passed through the hands of many rulers, the national boundaries were not well defined thus, it is difficult to decide to which country it belongs to. Pakistan and parts of Afghanistan were parts of India. When Nadir Shah attacked India and took the possession of Kohinoor, Kabul and Kandahar were being ruled from Delhi. Right now, there are three lawsuits in Pakistan, seeking claims on Kohinoor.

 

Nader Shah during the sacking of Delhi in the aftermath of his victory at the Battle of Karnal, 1739

It is true that the colourless diamond originated in Golconda Mines of India, later Nadir shah passed it to Persians long before British looted Sikhs. “The great looting of the Mughals was not by the British. By the times the British are powerful, the Mughals have already lost everything to the Persians. While the British did loot India, particularly Bengal, the big looting was done by Nadir Shah,” he further said.

“It in only because of the way the British wrote history that people have remembered the Kohinoor while everything else is forgotten. Other objects of loot like the Darya Noor (which is a sister diamond of Kohinoor) and parts of the Peacock throne are in Iran and nobody speaks about it.”

There is no doubt, the Antique rock has a long and complicating history and it is difficult to resolve to which country it belongs to. And Historian Dalrymple explained the reason how it has long lived throughout the history and still remembered.

“It in only because of the way the British wrote history that people have remembered the Kohinoor while everything else is forgotten. Other objects of loot like the Darya Noor (which is a sister diamond of Kohinoor) and parts of the Peacock throne are in Iran and nobody speaks about it.”

Speaking of the claims made by Indians that it should be brought back to India, he further added “It will be a matter of national pride, but it will open up a large number of grievances. Should the Dravidians now put a lawsuit against the Aryans, or should the Shudras start suing the Brahmans? The Kohinoor is a symbol of how complex and intractable history is. History is full of horror stories.”

“My personal view of all this is that history is far too complicated and entangled to think that there is anything to be gained by asking for retribution. Where does one stop? Should Britain seek retribution from Norway and Sweden for the Viking raids? Equally, should the Sri Lankan government send a bill to India for the Chola raids of Anuradhapura? This is not a healthy way of conducting international relations. One should be educated in history in the least biased way possible.” he said.

Akanksha is an intern at NewsGram and pursuing Journalism and Mass Communication in New Delhi. Twitter:@Akanksha4117

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  • Jasjeet Singh

    William Dalrymple needs to fix his story. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had a VAKIL (attorney) Mr Sohan Lal Suri who used to write daily diary of his Darbar namely Umdat-Ut-tawarikh. The real story as per Umdat-Ut-tawarikh is as follows:

    Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk was imprisoned by Atta Mohammad Khan, Governor of Kashmir under Maharaja’s Kingdom. He was he who tortured Shah and his family. Shah’s wife Wafa Begum contacted Maharajah Ranjit Singh and plead for his release and she promised to offer Koh-i-noor in return. Maharaja after his findings ordered on 6th day of Zil Hajj Sambat 1869 (1812AD) to free Shah and he was brought to Lahore and offered Haveli known as Mubarak and Rs 1000 cash for an entertainment. Shah family lived there with comfort.

    On the day of Holi festival of same year, Deewan Bhawani Dass, Munshi Karam Chand and Bhai Ram Singh met Shah’s agents Habibulla Khan and Haifz-Ruh-Ullah to close the business of Koh-i-noor. After long discussions the price of diamond was set as Rs 3 lakh advance and Jagir (territory) yielding income of Rs 50,000 per annum. Shah had to handover Koh-i-noor in 50 days.

    On 29th Jamadi-ul-Awwal (May 30, 1813)- Fiqir Aziz-ud-din, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Jamadar Khushal Singh went to Shah and told him expiry of 50 days. The Shah said, “ let Maharaja come and have it”. Maharaja with certain Chieftains and 1000 foot soldiers entered Mubarek Haveli, located in the Mochi Darwaz. Shah with folded hands offered Diamond and had an agreement written down purporting to non-interference with him and his descendants in future in regards to Jagir. Maharaja was very happy at the sight and presented Shah 20 rolls of Shawls, brocade, Gulabadn and the like. Shah also presented two Doshalas and One turban to Maharaja. The wisest Judges declared the weight of gem to be equal to 42 Mashas.

    The Shah had very cordial relationship with Maharajah. He was deposed by his brother in 1809 and he lived in Punjab till 1837. He regained his Kingdom with the help Sikhs especially Gen Hari Singh Nalwa in 1839. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in this expedition.

    The koh-i-noor was purchased by Maharajah and it was not snatched, stolen, surrendered or gifted by Shah.

  • Pritam Go Green

    Its not what we Indians need to worry out. Britian won’t give it to us that easy.

    • Pashchiema Bhatia

      In fact, its next to impossible.. Its way difficult to prove that it belongs to India as it has a complicated history

  • Jasjeet Singh

    William Dalrymple needs to fix his story. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had a VAKIL (attorney) Mr Sohan Lal Suri who used to write daily diary of his Darbar namely Umdat-Ut-tawarikh. The real story as per Umdat-Ut-tawarikh is as follows:

    Shah Shuja-ul-Mulk was imprisoned by Atta Mohammad Khan, Governor of Kashmir under Maharaja’s Kingdom. He was he who tortured Shah and his family. Shah’s wife Wafa Begum contacted Maharajah Ranjit Singh and plead for his release and she promised to offer Koh-i-noor in return. Maharaja after his findings ordered on 6th day of Zil Hajj Sambat 1869 (1812AD) to free Shah and he was brought to Lahore and offered Haveli known as Mubarak and Rs 1000 cash for an entertainment. Shah family lived there with comfort.

    On the day of Holi festival of same year, Deewan Bhawani Dass, Munshi Karam Chand and Bhai Ram Singh met Shah’s agents Habibulla Khan and Haifz-Ruh-Ullah to close the business of Koh-i-noor. After long discussions the price of diamond was set as Rs 3 lakh advance and Jagir (territory) yielding income of Rs 50,000 per annum. Shah had to handover Koh-i-noor in 50 days.

    On 29th Jamadi-ul-Awwal (May 30, 1813)- Fiqir Aziz-ud-din, Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Jamadar Khushal Singh went to Shah and told him expiry of 50 days. The Shah said, “ let Maharaja come and have it”. Maharaja with certain Chieftains and 1000 foot soldiers entered Mubarek Haveli, located in the Mochi Darwaz. Shah with folded hands offered Diamond and had an agreement written down purporting to non-interference with him and his descendants in future in regards to Jagir. Maharaja was very happy at the sight and presented Shah 20 rolls of Shawls, brocade, Gulabadn and the like. Shah also presented two Doshalas and One turban to Maharaja. The wisest Judges declared the weight of gem to be equal to 42 Mashas.

    The Shah had very cordial relationship with Maharajah. He was deposed by his brother in 1809 and he lived in Punjab till 1837. He regained his Kingdom with the help Sikhs especially Gen Hari Singh Nalwa in 1839. Hari Singh Nalwa was killed in this expedition.

    The koh-i-noor was purchased by Maharajah and it was not snatched, stolen, surrendered or gifted by Shah.

  • Pritam Go Green

    Its not what we Indians need to worry out. Britian won’t give it to us that easy.

    • Pashchiema Bhatia

      In fact, its next to impossible.. Its way difficult to prove that it belongs to India as it has a complicated history

Next Story

15 Amazing Facts About The Revolutionary Bhagat Singh

Bhagat Singh is considered to be a legend. Many of his actions are well-known. Even after his death, his inspiring actions continued to stir the desire for freedom.

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Bhagat Singh belonged to Punjab and popularly referred as legendary revolutionary Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh. Wikimedia Commons
Bhagat Singh belonged to Punjab and popularly referred as legendary revolutionary Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh. Wikimedia Commons
  • Bhagat Singh was born on 28 September 1907
  • At a very early age, he got inclined towards socialism and socialist revolutions
  • Bhagat Singh was a very versatile theatre artist

Bhagat Singh stands out to be one of India’s greatest revolutionary freedom fighter who was given the death penalty by the British colonizers. Although he died at a very young age of 23 but his actions inspired the youth of the nation to fight for the nation’s freedom.

Bhagat Singh belonged to Punjab and popularly referred as legendary revolutionary Shaheed-e-Azam Bhagat Singh. He was born on 28 September 1907 in the village of Banga, Lyallpur district (now in Pakistan). Bhagat Singh is considered to be one of the most influential revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement. He inculcated the spirit of martyrdom since his childhood.

Due to the utter influence of Bhagat Singh, Britishers hanged him an hour ahead of the official time. Wikimedia Commons
Due to the utter influence of Bhagat Singh, Britishers hanged him an hour ahead of the official time. Wikimedia Commons

At a very early age, he got inclined towards socialism and socialist revolutions led by Lenin and soon he started to follow and read about them. The leaflet that he threw in the Central Assembly on 9 April 1929, he stated, “It is easy to kill individuals but you cannot kill the ideas. Great empires crumbled while the ideas survived.”

Also Read: 8 must-read works of Rabindranath Tagore

Take a look at the life of one of the most celebrated Indian freedom fighters.

  1. Bhagat Singh was a great actor in college and a theatre artist. He took part in several plays. The most notable plays he was part of were ‘Rana Pratap’, ‘Samrat Chandragupta’ and ‘Bharata-durdasha’.
  2. When the Jalianwala Bagh incident occurred, Bhagat Singh was in school. He immediately left the school and went straight to the place of the tragedy. He collected the mud of that place which was mixed with the blood of Indians and worshipped the bottle every day. At that time, he was just 12 years old.
  3. In his childhood, Bhagat Singh often talked and wanted to grow guns in the fields, so that he could fight the British and push them back.
  4. Being a kid, he never talked about toys or games. He used to speak about driving out Britishers from India.
  5. The bomb that Bhagat Singh and his associates threw in the Central Assembly, were made of low-grade explosives. They were thrown away from people in the corridors of the building and were only meant to startle and not harm anyone. The British investigation report and forensics details also confirmed this.
  6. Bhagat Singh coined the word “political prisoner” during his stay in prison in 1930. He demanded basic amenities for his comrades in the prison which were even given to British looters and goons in the jail.
  7. ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ was the very famous phrase of Bhagat Singh. It fueled the independence vision of the people and later on became the slogan of India’s armed freedom struggle.
  8. Due to the utter influence of Bhagat Singh, Britishers hanged him an hour ahead of the official time. He was then secretly cremated on the banks of the river Sutlej by jail authorities. However, on hearing the news of his execution, thousands of people gathered at the spot of his cremation and took out a procession with his ashes.
  9. When Bhagat Singh was imprisoned in Lahore Jail, he kept a diary with him in which he penned down his fervent thoughts about freedom and revolution.
  10. At the very young age of 14 years, Bhagat Singh took part in a protest against the killing of a large number of unarmed people at Gurudwara Nankana Sahib.
  11. Bhagat Singh debunked Mahatma Gandhi’s philosophy of non-violence. After the 1922 Chauri Chaura incident, he joined the Young Revolutionary Movement and began to advocate for the violent methods to overthrow the British Government in India.
  12. To avoid a forced marriage by his family, Bhagat Singh ran away to Kanpur and left a letter, which read, “My life has been dedicated to the noblest cause, that of the freedom of the country. Therefore, there is no rest or worldly desire that can lure me now.”
  13. When the British police became aware of Singh’s influence on youth, they immediately arrested him on the false pretext of having been involved in a bombing.
  14. After witnessing the Hindu-Muslim riots that broke out after Gandhi disbanded the Non-Cooperation Movement, he began to question religious ideologies of the society. After that point, Singh dropped his religious beliefs. He believed that the religion hinders the revolutionaries’ struggle for independence, and started studying the works of Bakunin, Lenin, Trotsky – all atheist revolutionaries. Later on, Bhagat Singh also wrote an essay titled ‘Why I am an Atheist’ in 1930 in Lahore Central Jail.
  15. Bhagat Singh wrote for Urdu and Punjabi newspapers which used to get published from Amritsar. He also contributed to the publishing of pamphlets by the Naujawan Bharat Sabha that excoriated the British. In his college time, Singh won an essay competition set by the Punjab Hindi Sahitya Sammelan. Bhagat Singh also published a series of articles on anarchism in Kirti and used many pseudonyms such as Balwant, Ranjit and Vidhrohi for publishing his writings.
    ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ was the very famous phrase of Bhagat Singh. Wikimedia Commons
    ‘Inquilab Zindabad’ was the very famous phrase of Bhagat Singh. Wikimedia Commons

     

    Also Read: 10 Facts You Need To Know About Homi Bhabha

    Bhagat Singh is considered to be a legend. Many of his actions are well-known. His execution ignited the feeling of unity in many people to take up the revolutionary path, playing an important role in India’s freedom struggle. On the other hand, many didn’t agree with his radical approach to attain freedom. Even after his death, his inspiring actions continued to stir the desire for freedom.

    Once Bhagat Singh said, “They may kill me, but they cannot kill my ideas. They can crush my body, but they will not be able to crush my spirit.