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Indian-origin creator V A Shiva Ayyadurai the legitimate father of ‘Email’?

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Image source: theverge.com

New Delhi: The death of ‘supposed’ inventor of Email, Ray Tomlinson, on March 5, made the world talking about Mumbai-born V A Shiva Ayyadurai.

Tomlinson has been variously called email’s godfather, father and inventor, for having created a message transfer system between two computers in the same room in the 1970s.

He did this as an employee of a defence contractor. Most memorably, he is credited with having chosen the “@” sign.

However, Email has an Indian-origin creator too: Mumbai-born V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai.

Remember Marconi, famous for inventing radio? The world later realised that Jagadish Chandra Bose was the real inventor. Once again, top academics, including the venerable Noam Chomsky at MIT, have come forward to validate that V A Shiva Ayyadurai is the actual inventor of Email.

But there are two key differences. Bose didn’t live on to stake his claim to history while Ayyadurai has been fighting a losing battle to set the record straight. But most importantly, he has a US government document to support his claim.

As a high school student in 1979, Ayyadurai, then age 14, developed an electronic version of an interoffice mail system, which he called “EMAIL”. He copyrighted it in 1982.

Ayyadurai’s EMAIL started as a system of electronic message management that digitised the old-fashioned process of writing a memo, routing a memo with “To”, “Cc” (carbon copies) and “BCC”, and storing memos in folders. He developed this software at the College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in 1978.

The US government certified the official copyright on EMAIL on August 30, 1982, for Dr. V.A. Shiva Ayyadurai’s 1978 invention. At that time, computer software and code could not be patented in the USA. Ayyadurai went on to earn four degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), including a PhD.

Email transformed our business communication and collaboration like no other technology. It’s probably the longest-surviving of Internet tools, in its various forms and designs. It also evolved over the next decade, but the fundamentals stayed as they were in 1978, with one notable addition: The now-ubiquitous “@” between the name and the host server, courtesy of the late Tomlinson.

Why does academic credit matter? Because the journey matters, the motivation matters and history matters to generations of inventors, dreamers and entrepreneurs deserve to know the truth. Big change happens in small places when opportunity meets people who are driven to find answers. That’s how email, as we know it, came to be.

Tomlinson’s work and selection of the “@” identifier advanced email among outside computers and used TCP/IP as the basic building block of this communication system. Electronic messaging existed prior to that, within networks (which we now call ‘intranets’) and non-TCP/IP systems.

The story of email exemplifies the journey of a team that included a precocious Indian-born teenager, eager to be useful in America — grateful for the later opportunity to earn four degrees at MIT, after inventing and copyrighting the EMAIL system — and the human desire to solve problems.

For far too long we have all been led to believe that communication’s greatest innovations came out of defence research, inspired by the needs of war. Great innovations can be inspired to advance life, not just retrofitted from defence technologies.

Email was created in a place of light and cooperation and it is important for people across the world to understand and appreciate this. Telling the truth about the invention of email in Newark, New Jersey, therefore, is a historical imperative toward breaking this blind belief in the supremacy of defence research to reveal a fundamental truth. Innovation can occur, anytime, anyplace by anybody, and war and profit are not its necessary and required impetus.

Despite much coverage in the US and global media as the inventor of email, including in Time in “The Man Who Invented Email”, Ayyadurai has been attacked in the US as an imposter, someone who merely registered a program called EMAIL, rather than invent email.

To them, MIT’s Noam Chomsky has this to say:

“Email, upper case, lower case, any case, is the electronic version of the interoffice, inter-organizational mail system, the email we all experience today — and email was invented in 1978 by a 14-year-old working in Newark, New Jersey. The facts are indisputable.” (Arvind Gupta and Prasanto K Roy, IANS)

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Hindus in New Jersey Welcome Diwali Holiday in Millburn Schools Draft Calendar

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Millburn High School in New Jersey.
Millburn High School in New Jersey. Universal Society of Hinduism

New Jersey October 07: Hindus in New Jersey have welcomed the reports of closing Millburn Township Public Schools (MTPS) on November seven in the Draft Calendar 2018-2019.

Distinguished Hindu statesman Rajan Zed, in a statement in Nevada today, urged the MTPS Board of Education to unanimously approve this Diwali holiday included in the calendar draft when it meets on October nine evening. The board should respect the feelings of Hindus, who had been pushing for Diwali holiday in Millburn Township Public Schools for many years.

Zed, who is President of Universal Society of Hinduism, indicated that the New Jersey Hindus community felt left out as, despite fast-changing state demographics and continuing growth of Hindu populations, only three public school districts had reportedly declared a holiday for students on October 19, the date on which Diwali falls this year.

For 2017 in New Jersey, Glen Rock Public Schools has announced the closure of schools and offices on Diwali; in West Windsor-Plainsboro Regional School District, schools will be closed on October 19; and in Piscataway Township Schools, there is “No School for Students” on Diwali; reports suggest.

In neighbouring New York, six school districts have declared a holiday for students on October 19, which include: East Meadow School District, East Williston Union Free School District, Half Hollow Hills Central School District, Herricks Union Free School District, Hicksville Union Free School District and Syosset Central School District. Another Mineola Union Free School District announced that no homework or examinations would be given on Diwali, reports add.

In Pennsylvania, Unionville-Chadds Ford School District headquartered in Kennett Square approved closure of schools on Diwali; while Harvard Public Schools in Massachusetts has declared October 19 as “early release day”, reports note.

Rajan Zed suggested that all other 674 public school districts and private-charter-independent schools in New Jersey should seriously look into declaring Diwali as an official holiday, thus recognizing the intersection of spirituality and education. Zed noted that awareness about other religions thus created by such holidays like Diwali would make New Jersey students well-nurtured, well-balanced, and enlightened citizens of tomorrow.

Zed pointed out that it would be a positive thing to do in view of the presence of a substantial number of New Jersey Hindus, who are students at schools around the state, as it was important to meet the religious and spiritual needs of these pupils.

Rajan Zed stated that it was not fair to Hindu pupils and their families as they had to attend school on their most popular festival while many schools in the state were closed on holy days of some other communities. This unfairness did not send a good signal to the impressionable minds of schoolchildren who would be the leaders of tomorrow; Zed said and added that New Jersey schools needed to urgently revisit their policies on this issue.

Zed further said that since it was important for Hindu families to celebrate Diwali day together at home with their children, we did not want our children to be deprived of any privileges at the school because of thus resulting absences on this day. Closing schools on Diwali would ensure that and it would be a step in the positive direction.

Rajan Zed also urged New Jersey Governor Chris Christie, New Jersey State Board of Education President Arcelio Aponte and New Jersey Department of Education Commissioner Kimberley Harrington; to work towards adding Diwali as an official holiday in all the public school districts in the state and persuading the private-charter-independent schools to follow.

Zed stresses that Hinduism is rich in festivals and religious festivals are very dear and sacred to Hindus. Diwali, the festival of lights, aims at dispelling the darkness and lighting up the lives and symbolizes the victory of good over evil. Hinduism is oldest and third largest religion of the world with about 1.1 billion adherents. There are about three million Hindus in the USA.

MTPS, known for academic excellence whose 99% of graduating seniors reportedly attend four-year colleges, has about 5,000 pupils. Emily Jaffe and Dr Christine Burton are Board President and Superintendent respectively. (Universal Society of Hinduism)

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Don’t miss out on this otherworldly Hindu Temple in New Jersey

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BAPS Shri Swaminarayan mandir
BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Temple, New Jersey. Wikimedia commons

New Jersey, April 23, 2017: It is a fact that Hinduism is not only confined to the peninsular country of India but this religion transcends over the world. The BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in New Jersey is a result of this very growth of Hinduism. Robbinsville, New Jersey may seem like an odd place for a religious pilgrimage, but that is exactly what it became when the Bochasanwasi Shri Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha, also known at BAPS, inaugurated what is reported to be one of the largest U.S. Hindu temples in early August 2014 and since then huge crowd has been drawn to Robbinsville every year.

If you see photos of the BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, a Hindu temple that is adorned with intricate Italian Carrara marble hand-carvings and images sacred to the Hindu faithful, you may think that you’re looking at the image of a structure thousands of miles away.

But this otherworldly temple is right around the corner in Robbinsville, Mercer County, and has been attracting those of the Hindu faith as well as those interested in its architecture and significance since it was built in 2014.

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“For the Hindus, this is a place to see God, purify themselves and increase their faith in God,” said Lenin Joshi, a mandir volunteer who lives in Lawrenceville and visits the mandir about twice a week. “For those who are not Hindu, they feel that coming here calms their minds and they experience peace. They learn the messages of tolerance, nonviolence and coexistence, and many also find the strength to give up addictions when they come.”

“The mandir is a one-of-a-kind temple made completely out of marble carved by hand using the ancient knowledge of temple making,” said Joshi. “Be prepared to be blown away by the craftsmanship. Many say that being there made them feel like they were in a dream or they found it to be heavenly.”

The carvings that adorn the mandir feature unique depictions of animals, deities and designs. Each of the 98 seven-foot pillars that fill the mandir, it took four artisans about two months to carve.

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Although there are nearly 80 BAPS temples in North America, the Robbinsville mandir is just the sixth built entirely of stone and according to an ancient Hindu architectural tradition based in the Shilpa Shastras, the Times of Trenton reported. It took three years, many volunteer hours and roughly $18 million to build.

Individuals and families are not required to book their visit in advance to the mandir, which has free admission and can accommodate about 150 people at a time, and on arrival, they can inquire about the availability of a tour guide or the audio tour guide. Tours last about 40 minutes to one hour, and visitors can learn about the artwork that adorns the mandir, Bhagwan Swaminarayan (to whom the mandir is dedicated), His Holiness Pramukh Swami Maharaj (who inspired the mandir), see the greenery surrounding the mandir as well as see an arti ceremony.

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The arti ceremonies, which occurs three times per day at 7:30 a.m., 11:30 a.m. and 7 p.m., are ancient Hindu offerings made by waving lighted wicks before sacred images to the accompaniment of a musical prayer. Many visitors have described the experience as awe-inspiring.

“At the heart of a Hindu mandir is personal devotion, bhakti, a one-on-one devotion with God,” said Trivedi, one of the founders of the mandir. “Primarily it provides a home, and it is not only a house of God but a house for the devotee”

“I always leave the mandir with a lot of peace,” said Joshi. “I feel that I have had hope renewed in me. This place can inspire everyone to live a better life.”

 prepared by Nikita Tayal of NewsGram, Twitter: @NikitaTayal6 

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How advertisements in India are defying gender cliche

Ads playing an effective medium in moulding opinions of society

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advertisements
How Indian advertisement industry is breaking the gender stereotype

Feb 27, 2017: The most important part of advertisements is the story line and it gives a spur on the social media when the lessons from the story line are timeless. Needless to say, every time a free-spirited ad is released, it not only sparks conversations over the internet but also leaves a viral trail of debates. Just in the same way, some of the Indian advertisements did when they strove to change the mindset of people with regard to gender difference. We often tend to slur women not realizing the essence of being a woman, it takes strength and an indomitable spirit to be a woman. This article will talk about how advertisements in India are leading by example and discarding gender difference.

Let’s recall some of the advertisements that did away with gender difference.

Nike’s recent ‘Da Da Ding’ ad starring Deepika Padukone as one among other female athletes is a powerful ad which got the people talking about giving importance to female athletes as well. It showcased females of a real athletic figure which is not animated and has got nothing to do with ‘legs and butts’.

(A still from Nike’s Da Da Ding advertisement)

The ad portrayed women as fierce and passionate about sports. Once upon a time, Nike’s product catered almost exclusively to marathon runners and then, a fitness craze emerged –and the folks in Nike’s marketing department knew where to mark their next move, an applause for Nike for initiating a spellbinding effort.

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Whisper, Touch the pickle ad

(A still from Whisper Touch the pickle advertisement)

Whisper, Touch the pickle ad is another exemplary of breaking taboos surrounding women’s menstrual cycle. The whisper #Touchthepickle campaign makes an attempt to purge the baseless superstitions owing to Dos and Dont’s in menses. The ad showcases a young girl who dares to touch the pickle while she is on her periods. It conveys a sensible meaning to its viewers to break away these taboos. The ad was lauded internationally and awarded ‘Glass Lion Grand Prix’ award at Cannes International Festival of Creativity.

Many advertisements over the years have sold the cosmetic product but fewer have tried to change the societal conception of beauty. Even fewer have tried to do both, Joy Cosmetic is the brand that did it in India.

(A still from Joy beauty advertisement)
The ad begins with showcasing a well renowned oversized comedian, Bharti Singh asking the viewers “What did you expect, 36-24-36?”, and shuts down body shamers who presumed it to be an ideal body size. The ad conveys effortlessly that an Ideal beauty has nothing to do with body and shape.The advertisement has a sensitive message and is meaningful to its consumers.

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While there is a lot of chaos regarding section 377 in India, Ebay India took an audacious stance through its ad titled “Things don’t judge”.

(A still from Ebay India advertisement)