Thursday December 13, 2018

More Girls think they are bad at Maths than Boys, even when they are not: Here is Why!

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New York, April 10, 2017: More girls think they are bad at maths than boys, even when they are not. And it turns out that it is this low level of confidence that stops many women from pursuing higher education in science and engineering, according to a new study.

When it comes to mathematics, girls rate their abilities markedly lower than boys, even when there is no observable difference between the two, the study found.

“The argument continues to be made that gender differences in the ‘hard’ sciences is all about ability,” said lead study author Lara Perez-Felkner, Assistant Professor at Florida State University in the US.

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“But when we hold mathematics ability test scores constant, effectively taking it out of the equation, we see boys still rate their ability higher, and girls rate their ability lower,” Perez-Felkner said.

Despite a surge in college enrollment and degree attainment for girls worldwide in recent decades, women continue to remain underrepresented in physics, engineering, mathematics and computer sciences (PEMC).

The research team found perception gaps are even wider at the upper levels of mathematics ability — among those students with the most talent and potential in these fields.

Boys are significantly more confident in challenging mathematics contexts than otherwise identically talented girls, showed the findings published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology.

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Specifically, boys rated their ability 27 per cent higher than girls did.

The findings are based on a study that followed 10th grade students in the US over a six-year period.

A series of questions in the 10th and 12th grade surveys asked students to indicate their level of agreement with statements such as “I’m certain I can understand the most difficult material presented in math texts.”

“That’s important because those confidence levels influence the math and science courses students choose later in high school,” Perez-Felkner said.

Women have a 4.7 per cent chance of declaring PEMC majors compared to 14.9 per cent of men, the study showed. (IANS)

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USA: Everything you want to know about Security Clearance; Find out here!

A security clearance allows a person access to classified national security information or restricted areas.

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Former CIA Director John O. Brennan speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, March 11, 2014. President Donald Trump revoked Brennan's security clearance Wednesday. VOA
Former CIA Director John O. Brennan speaks at the Council on Foreign Relations in Washington, March 11, 2014. President Donald Trump revoked Brennan's security clearance Wednesday. VOA

U.S. President Donald Trump on Wednesday revoked the security clearance of former CIA Director John Brennan. We take a look at what that means.

What is a security clearance?

A security clearance allows a person access to classified national security information or restricted areas after completion of a background check. The clearance by itself does not guarantee unlimited access. The agency seeking the clearance must determine what specific area of information the person needs to access.

What are the different levels of security clearance?

There are three levels: Confidential, secret and top secret. Security clearances don’t expire. But, top secret clearances are reinvestigated every five years, secret clearances every 10 years and confidential clearances every 15 years.

All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance. VOA
All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance. VOA

Who has security clearances?

According to a Government Accountability Office report released last year, about 4.2 million people had a security clearance as of 2015, they included military personnel, civil servants, and government contractors.

Why does one need a security clearance in retirement?

Retired senior intelligence officials and military officers need their security clearances in case they are called to consult on sensitive issues.

Also Read: Governments Across The World Request Apple for 30,000 Device Information

Can the president revoke a security clearance?

Apparently. But there is no precedent for a president revoking someone’s security clearance. A security clearance is usually revoked by the agency that sought it for an employee or contractor. All federal agencies follow a list of 13 potential justifications for revoking or denying a clearance, which can include criminal acts, lack of allegiance to the United States, behavior or situation that could compromise an individual and security violations. (VOA)