Tuesday December 12, 2017

Obesity in Children – Global Public Health Problem (Challenges in India)

1
255

Lose weight now

By Dr.J.K. Bhutani

Obesity in children is rapidly spreading across the globe as public health problem. The prevalence of over-weight and obesity has increased steadily over the past 30 years, almost doubling in the children and more so in adolescents where it has probably trebled. Earlier the problem of developed economies like USA and Europe, the epidemic is fast increasing in developing economies like India and China. India, a developing economy is already burdened with more than 20 million obese people and the number is increasing every year.

What are the etiological risk factors?

Obesity is essentially a state of excess adipose tissue mass. Overweight and obesity are the result of “caloric imbalance” mostly which means too few calories expended for the amount of calories consumed. In addition, it is also affected by various genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors. Globally, there has been an increased intake of energy-dense foods that are high in fat, salt and sugars but low in fiber, vitamins, minerals and other micro-nutrients. With increased prosperity there has been a decrease in physical activity due to the increasingly sedentary and luxurious inactive life. The calories consumed are far more than are spent in “Computer/TV/Car and lack of physical activity routine” of most of the children. The lack of patronage to sports by elected governments in furthering careers has decreased interest of young people in physical activity. The developing urban clusters, with less open spaces and parks also have put physical activity and street-park games to almost oblivion. The most important consequence of childhood obesity is its persistence into adulthood with all its health risks. The health risks include diabetes, hypertension and cardio-vascular diseases, stroke, gall bladder disease, osteoarthritis and sleep apnea etc.

Public health intervention strategies

World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the 2008-2013 Action Plans for the global strategy for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases including the WHO Global Strategy on diet, physical activity and health. The aim is to address the common public health problem of obesity and its consequent morbidity and mortality. India is experiencing a rapid health transition with a rising burden of non-communicable diseases for which a National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, CVD and Stroke has been launched in 2008. The emphasis of this program is to educate about overweight and obesity as well.

National Sports Development Code of India -2011, lays stress on encouraging and patronizing sports at school/college levels and suggesting legislation to include sports and physical education/activity as an essential activity at CBSE/ISC curriculum schools. The NCERT is forming the guidelines for the schools regarding compulsory physical education.

What can be done in India

We all know the cause of obesity epidemic and we all know that if appropriate actions are taken, it can be prevented. Large scale awareness about the weight and BMI targets can easily be spread taking help of media (print, TV/Satellite and web resources).

The elected governments can provide supportive environment and participation at community level regarding healthier choices of foods and regular physical activity to prevent overweight and obesity.

The provision of parks/playgrounds and open spaces in urban development should be a priority for new urban clusters. The compulsory physical education and sports periods in school/college curriculum can be combined with no entry to fast-food joints and cola rich snacks in the schools premises. The food industry can play a significant role in promoting healthy diets by reducing the fat, sugar and salt content of processed foods. The glamour of advertising by industry should be in the message of healthy foods and not in selling the unhealthy calorie-dense foods.

At the individual level, people can be educated by print and television media regarding limiting energy intake, avoiding saturated fats and fast foods, increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables. Engaging in regular physical activities, at work place or home, should be encouraged.

The ultimate goal is to have a healthy weight and a physically fit body and mind. It only requires acting at all the levels simultaneously and in unison. The concept of ‘deep practice’ postulated by Daniel Coyle if practiced in changing our food habits and physical activity levels at individual, community and national levels can surely make healthy citizens in India and globally too.

JK
Dr J.K.Bhutani MD is a protagonist of preventive and promotive health care based on austere biology and facilitating self healing powers of human organism.
You can follow him at https://twitter.com/drjkbhutani

  • Navjeet Sidhu

    The alarming proportions which obesity has acquired have been brought out well in this article!! The article needs to bbe widely shared read and acted upon for our sake as well as the sake of future generations!!!

Next Story

Poor Dental Health can Lead to Obesity in Children

The study found a direct relationship between poor dental health leading to a rise in BMI (Body Mass Index) and extra body fat.

0
14
Poor Dental Health can Lead to Obesity in Children
Poor Dental Health can Lead to Obesity in Children. Pixabay
  • Worried about your child’s obesity problems? It’s high time you curbed his love for sugary drinks and junk food. A little focus on dental care may also prevent your child gaining excess weight, says a new study.

The study found a direct relationship between poor dental health leading to a rise in BMI (Body Mass Index) and extra body fat.

“Weight can be a sensitive subject, but if you talk about eating behaviors alongside dental health, you are looking at the issue from a different angle,” said Louise Arvidsson, a doctoral student at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden.

“The question is whether a healthy diet can have the effect also in young children. There has been a lot of focus on physical activity and mental health in children, but diet is an increasingly recognized aspect.”

The researchers reviewed the eating behavior, body fat and dental health of 271 small children. The height, weight and food intake of the children were kept under observation for one day and then checked for the prevalence of cariogenic microorganisms in saliva.

The results found that the children who had a higher amount of carries bacteria also had higher BMI and worse eating habits.

The children were suggested to consume whole grain products, 400-500 grams of fruit and vegetables per day, fish two to three times a week and a low intake of sugar and saturated fat.

Arvidsson mentioned in the thesis, conducted at the University’s Sahlgrenska Academy, that with good food comes increased self-esteem, better relationships with friends and fewer emotional problems

Rather, parents who try to change the regime of their children by asking them to eat less during childhood can see serious repercussions of overweight problems in later life.(IANS)

Next Story

Experts Say Measles Victims Dropped Below 100,000 in 2016

0
22
Measles Victims Dropped
Foriza Begum, background, a newly arrived Rohingya Muslim from Myanmar, reacts to her daughter Nosmin Fatima's scream as she receives a vaccination to prevent measles and rubella at a makeshift medical center in Teknaf, Bangladesh. VOA
  • Latest reports of WHO, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say the rate of deaths from measles has dropped.
  • As per experts, a number of people who died from measles in 2016 were about 90,000, compared to 550,000 in 2000.

The World Health Organization, UNICEF, and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention say the rate of deaths from measles has dropped 84 percent since the beginning of a global vaccination campaign in 2000.

Experts say the number of people who died from the disease in 2016 was about 90,000, compared to more than 550,000 deaths in 2000. This marks the first time that worldwide measles deaths have fallen to less than 100,000 per year.

Robert Linkins, of the Measles and Rubella Initiative at the CDC, said in a statement that “saving an average of 1.3 million lives per year through vaccine is an incredible achievement and makes a world free of measles seem possible, even probable, in our lifetime.”

Since 2000, some 5.5 billion doses of measles vaccine have been administered to children through routine immunization services and mass vaccination campaigns. The disease is contagious through air particles and can spread quickly. The disease kills more people every year than any other vaccine-preventable disease.

But the WHO says the world is still far from reaching regional measles elimination goals. Since 2009, officials have managed to deliver a first dose of the vaccine to 85 percent of the babies who need it, but there has been no improvement in that rate in eight years. And only 64 percent of the affected population has gotten the second dose, which comes when a child is four or five years old.

The WHO says “far too many children” — about 20.8 million — have not had their first vaccine dose. Most of those children live in Nigeria, India, Pakistan, Indonesia, Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The disease puts children at risk of developing complications such as pneumonia, diarrhea, encephalitis, and blindness.(VOA)

Next Story

WHO Releases New Guidelines to Fight Global Childhood Obesity

India ranks second in the number of obese children in the world with China taking the first spot

0
14
OBESITY
Obesity exposes an individual to multiple health problems. VOA

New Delhi, October 12, 2017:  In 2016, an Official data in had revealed that over 41 million children below the age of 5 were affected by obesity. Without due attention and efficient treatment, they are likely to remain obese throughout their lives, with an increased risk of developing a host of diseases and physical and psychological consequences like anxiety, low self-esteem, depression, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and even premature death.

In view of an escalating number of people constantly coming under the ambush of obesity, and with childhood obesity becoming a cause of worry globally, the World Health Organization (WHO) released new guidelines on October 4, emphasizing the growing importance of healthcare experts and professionals, underlining their positive role in helping kids and teenagers fight the global menace.

What is Obesity?

Obesity is defined as ‘excess adipose tissue’. In other words, it is a body-weight disorder involving excessive body fat that exposes an individual to multiple health problems.  In case a person’s body-weight is nearly 20 per cent higher than it should be, he is considered obese.

obesity
Excessive body fat that exposes an individual to multiple health problems. Pixabay

There are different ways to calculate excess adipose tissue, the most common one being the Body Mass Index.

Index :

Overweight – BMI greater than or equal to 25

Obesity – BMI greater than or equal to 30

Global Data

According to data obtained by WHO, one half of all overweight children or obese children lived in Asia, and one-quarter of the total obese children lived in Africa.

According to a study published in The New England Journal of Medicine in June, India ranks second in the number of obese children in the world with China taking the first spot.

The global menace continues to rise rapidly in low and middle-income countries.

Also Read: Obesity leads to 13 types of Cancer, including that of Pancreas and Esophagus: Study

WHO Guidelines

The new report released by WHO on October 4 is titled ‘Assessing and Managing Children at Primary Healthcare Facilities to Prevent Overweight and Obesity in the Context of the Double Burden of Malnutrition’.

The report provides guidelines and updates for the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI). The guidelines attempt to confine the spread of childhood obesity from expanding further, and prescribe undertaking proper assessment of dietary habits along with weight and height measurements. It also recommends dieting and proper counseling by healthcare experts.

Recommendations by WHO

  • WHO has recommended that primary healthcare facilities should be made available to all children below the age of 5 years and infants. These should include measurement of both weight and height of the children to determine their weight-for height and nutritional status as previously defined by WHO child growth standards.
  • For children and infants identified as overweight, healthcare experts should provide counseling to parents and caregivers on nutrition and physical activity, which includes creating awareness about healthy practices like exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months and continuing the practice until 2 years or more.
  • WHO also prescribes that an appropriate management plan should be devised to counter the menace in obese children. This can be developed by a trained health worker at primary healthcare facilities, or local hospitals.

Healthy Eating Tips to Fight Obesity

Here are a few healthy eating tips that will not only help you maintain a healthy weight but will also prove be be beneficial for your metabolism, physical strength and general well-being,

  • Refrain from unnecessary indulgences or random snacking and encourage healthy snacking choices like popcorns, yogurt, fruits, etc.
  • Reduce your sugar intake to less than 10 per cent of the total calories for an individual with normal weight.
obesity
Obese and binge eating junk food? Red Flag! Pixabay
  • Consume a gracious serving of seasonal vegetables and fruits everyday that are rich in soluble and insoluble fibres, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals.
  • Make healthy food selections- include whole grain products, avoid excessive use of oil and salt and refrain from processed or packaged food.
  • A balanced diet must be complimented with regular exercise to counter unnecessary weight gain

– prepared by Soha Kala of NewsGram. Twitter @SohaKala