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Ramchandra Chintaman Dhere: Renowned Marathi litterateur and Folk Scholar passes away

In a literary career spread over four decades, Dr. Dhere penned more than a hundred scholarly works

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Ramchandra Chintaman Dhere. Image source: loksatta.com
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  • Dr Dhere is  the winner of prestigious Sahitya Akademi award in 1987
  • His book on Lord Vitthal is still considered to be one of the most influential chronicles on the lives and the impact of deities and saints in Maharashtra
  • He became the first person to receive the D.Lit. from the University of Pune

Renowned Marathi scholar Ramachandra Chintaman Dhere passed away at the age of 86 on Friday, July 1, after succumbing to a prolonged illness.

Dr Dhere, the winner of prestigious Sahitya Akademi award in 1987, was known for his path-breaking work on Maharashtra’s religious traditions.

His most prominent book on Lord Vitthal titled ‘Shri Vitthal: Ek Mahasamanvaya’, which was published in 1984, is still considered to be one of the most influential chronicles on the lives and the impact of deities and saints in Maharashtra.

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Translated into English by American scholar Anne Feldhaus and titled as ‘The Rise of a Folk God: Vitthal of Pandharpur’, his award-winning book on Lord Vitthal is also a part of the scholarly curriculum on South Asia in Oxford University.

In the preface to the book Feldhaus wrote that Dr Dhere contested Lord Vithoba was “originally a pastoralists’ deity” i.e. the deity of rustic. However, because he ended up uniting both the rural and the elite forms of Hindu worship, so the title ‘ek Mahasamanvay’ or ‘a grand converger’ or ‘synthesiser’, quoted The Hindu.

The Rise of a Folk God by Dhere, Image Source: Flipkart.com
The Rise of a Folk God by Dhere, Image Source: Flipkart.com

The text, which makes an immense contribution to the study of the history of Vaishnavite tradition, does so by  tracing the source of Vithoba culture and its  connections with Buddhism and Jainism It is also the most influential work written in any language made to understand the deity.

In a literary career that is spread over four decades, Dr Dhere penned more than a hundred scholarly works. With a religious undertone, he asked significant questions on what was the origin of a secular populace in the state.

Through his authoritative and scholarly works, he analysed the importance of religious life in the state and etched wonderful and unconventional narratives of the origin of religious milieu in Maharashtra and the Deccan Plateau.

Apart from Shri Vitthal, Dr Dhere’s other notable works include Chakrapani (1976). The book studies the cultural background of Marathi literature during the time of the Yadava dynasty.

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His other important prominent works include the Marathi Loksanskrutiche Upasak (1964). The book, which is a complete work on the introduction to folk institutions, is also translated into English as ‘Performers, custodians and practitioners of Folk Culture.’ Dr Dhere has also authored an interesting brief biography on Chanakya.

He also became the first person to receive the D.Lit. from the University of Pune, apart from receiving state prize for his nine works.

Sripal Sabnis, president of All India Marathi Sahitya Sammelan, said: “He set high standards in literary criticism and research that would inspire generations of Marathi writers.”

Dr Dhere  is survived by his family that includes his wife and two daughters and a son. One of his daughter Aruna Dhere is a noted author-poet herself.

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Maharashtra’s climate action plan yielded disappointments

Broadly speaking, the plan discusses the impact of climate change on six sectors -- agriculture, water resources, health, forests and biodiversity, livelihoods, and energy and infrastructure.

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Climate action plans were not up to the mark. Pixabay
Climate action plans were not up to the mark. Pixabay
  • The Maharashtra climate action plan yields huge disappointments as it failed to recognize crucial issues in its implementation.
  • The issues like air pollution and damage through thunderstorms and lightening were ignored.
  • The plan only focused on six major factors.

Mumbai, Jan 1: Eight years after the Centre’s direction to formulate a state action plan on climate change, and seven years after awarding the contract for a comprehensive vulnerability assessment study, the Maharashtra cabinet has finally adopted a plan on climate change.

Titled ‘Assessing Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation Strategies for Maharashtra: Maharashtra State Action Plan on Climate Change, and prepared by The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), the action plan assesses vulnerability of the state to changing climate and outlines broad and ambitious strategies for building a climate-resilient future.

Rice Farm, Farming, Agriculture, Farm
Action plan focuses on 6 major factors, including agriculture. Pixabay

The action plan, built on high resolution modelling for which TERI entered into a partnership with the UK Met Office, projects changes in temperature and rainfall across the state at a resolution of about 25 km by 25 km for time periods 2030s, 2050s and 2070s — with the average climate during 1970-2000 as the model’s baseline.

An important component of the action plan is the Macro Level Vulnerability Index based on 19 indicators, which has identified the most vulnerable districts in Maharashtra: Nandurbar is the most climate change-vulnerable district, followed by Dhule and Buldhana. Satara is regarded as the least vulnerable district. Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg are also considered less vulnerable to changes in the climate. The state government has announced setting up a panel of experts to oversee the implementation of the report.

India, Mumbai, Bombay, Tourism
Issues related to thunderstorm and lightening were not taken into consideration. Pixabay

But, meteorologists and environment experts aren’t satisfied with the action plan. “The state has taken considerable time to come up with its adaptation plan on climate change. But the plan misses out on some crucial weather events, such as thunderstorm and lightning, that are linked to climatic changes. Air pollution, an important environment factor, is also missing from the plan,” said Akshay Deoras, Nagpur-based meteorologist.

Ashok Jaswal, former scientist with the India Meteorological Department (IMD), Pune, stresses that an effective state action plan should include all direct and indirect climatic parameters.

“Air pollutants are aerosols and have their own different properties. Some are salt-based, whereas others are carbon-based, or dust, or smoke. Some reflect solar radiation, whereas others trap heat,” he said. “These aerosols influence cloud formation, rainfall and the overall climate, and must be a part of the state action plan on climate change.”

Broadly speaking, the plan discusses the impact of climate change on six sectors — agriculture, water resources, health, forests and biodiversity, livelihoods, and energy and infrastructure. It also makes projections for rainfall and temperature in the state; and assesses the future sea level rise. A section in the plan is dedicated to extreme rainfall, flooding and adaptation in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region.

The document shows that temperature and rainfall are projected to increase all over the state with some regional variations. Amravati division (Vidarbha region) and Aurangabad division (Marathwada region) are going to experience greater rise in annual mean temperatures than other parts of the state.

The projected increase in annual mean temperature for Amravati is expected to be 1.44-1.64 degree C, 2.2-2.35 degree C, and 3.06-3.46 degree C in 2030s, 2050s and 2070s, respectively. For the same time periods, the projected annual mean temperature increase for Aurangabad division is 1.44-1.56 degree C, 2.15-2.3 degree C, and 3.14-3.38 degree C, respectively. An increase in temperature is likely to lead to a decrease in yields for some crops, such as rice, sorghum and cotton.

Minimum temperature is also projected to increase, particularly in the divisions of Konkan, Pune and Nashik, which could have an adverse impact on crops sensitive to high night temperatures in the reproductive phase, such as grain growth in rice or tuberisation in potatoes, warns the state action plan.

The government's efforts came up short. Pixabay
The government’s efforts came up short. Pixabay

The action plan notes that an increase in temperature will be conducive to malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in eastern and coastal (Thane and Raigad regions) Maharashtra in 2030s. By the 2050s, a faster rate of parasite development will take place in Aurangabad, Jalna and Nashik districts.

Since a warmer atmosphere has a higher capacity to hold water vapour, it will lead to intense rainfall events with longer dry or low rainfall spells in between. Extreme rainfall is projected to increase in all regions of the state with greater increases in the northern parts of the state.

Meanwhile, parts of south-central Maharashtra are projected to experience more dry days in the 2030s as compared to the baseline. These districts of Marathwada are already prone to recurring droughts and infamous for farmers’ suicides.

“The findings… clearly describe the adverse impacts of climate change on all regions of the state. The report shows the worrying trend of an increase in extreme weather events and heavy precipitation days,” said Parineeta Dandekar, associate co-ordinator of the South Asian Network on Dams, Rivers and People.

“Increased rainfall will lead to heavy flooding, which will have a direct bearing on the state’s water infrastructure. But, the action plan fails to elaborate upon ways to manage the water infrastructure in times of climate change.”

Lightning is listed as a state-specific disaster in Maharashtra, but the state action plan makes no mention of lightning, which is linked to climatic changes. “Rising temperature means more evaporation and high moisture content in the atmosphere, which leads to more thunderstorm activity and an increased incidence of lightning,” explained Jaswal.

A recent study, ‘Distribution of Lightning Casualities over Maharashtra’, has examined lightning deaths in the state between 1979 and 2011 and found 2,363 casualties from 455 lighting events. On an average 72 casualties per year have been reported with significant increasing trend.

“It is shocking that in spite of so many lives being lost each year due to lightning, the state action plan does not even mention the terms thunderstorm and lightning. Unless the plan acknowledges these weather events, how will the state government manage such disasters?” questioned Deoras.

The action plan does take note of the adverse impacts of hailstorm on horticulture crops in the state. For instance, it notes that hailstorms destroyed the grape crop in 2008-09. In 2010, almost 15 percent of the orange crop was destroyed due to rising heat and untimely hailstorm. But it fails to provide pointed information on ways to minimise impact on crops.

The action plan also makes no mention of air pollution. “Not including air pollution in the state climate action plan is a major drawback and the same must be rectified at the earliest,” said Jaswal.

Dandekar stresses on the need for translating action points into swift action. “The recommendations should not remain on paper, but must be included in the various state policies for immediate implementation,” she said. Deoras recommends setting up of a committee to reframe the action plan, by including the above-mentioned points, and then working towards the plan’s implementation by providing specific directions. IANS