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The Yoga of Meditation uncovered by Krishna is arranged in sixth Chapter, Dhyana Yoga of Bhagavad Gita. Sri Krishna uncovers the Yoga of Meditation to Arjuna and He clarifies the methods. He discusses the role of activity in getting ready for Meditation, how performing responsibilities and duties in devotion purifies one’s mind and uplifts one’s spiritual cognizance.
Lord Krishna clarifies the impediments that one faces when they attempt to control their mind and working strategies by which one can overcome their mind. Likewise, Krishna also uncovers how one can concentrate their mind on Paramatma, so that they can unite with God.
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Here is the collection of Sanskrit Verses from Dhyana Yoga (Chapter 6) of Bhagavad Gita, provided with english translation-
योगी युञ्जीत सततमात्मानं रहसि स्थित: |
एकाकी यतचित्तात्मा निराशीरपरिग्रह: || 10||
yogī yuñjīta satatam ātmānaṁ rahasi sthitaḥ
ekākī yata-chittātmā nirāśhīr aparigrahaḥ
The individuals who look for the state of Yog ought to live in isolation, continually occupied with meditation with a controlled mind and body, disposing of wants and assets for pleasure.
तत्रैकाग्रं मन: कृत्वा यतचित्तेन्द्रियक्रिय: |
उपविश्यासने युञ्ज्याद्योगमात्मविशुद्धये || 12||
समं कायशिरोग्रीवं धारयन्नचलं स्थिर: |
सम्प्रेक्ष्य नासिकाग्रं स्वं दिशश्चानवलोकयन् || 13||
tatraikāgraṁ manaḥ kṛitvā yata-chittendriya-kriyaḥ
upaviśhyāsane yuñjyād yogam ātma-viśhuddhaye
samaṁ kāya-śhiro-grīvaṁ dhārayann achalaṁ sthiraḥ
samprekṣhya nāsikāgraṁ svaṁ diśhaśh chānavalokayan
Seated firmly on it, the yogi should strive to purify the mind by focusing it in meditation with one-pointed concentration, controlling all thoughts and activities. He must hold the body, neck, and head firmly in a straight line, and gaze at the tip of the nose, without allowing the eyes to wander as per an article on VedicFeed.
प्रशान्तात्मा विगतभीर्ब्रह्मचारिव्रते स्थित: |
मन: संयम्य मच्चित्तो युक्त आसीत मत्पर: || 14||
praśhāntātmā vigata-bhīr brahmachāri-vrate sthitaḥ
manaḥ sanyamya mach-chitto yukta āsīta mat-paraḥ
Along these lines, with a quiet, peaceful, fearless, bold, and unfaltering mind, and staunch in the vow of celibacy, the cautious yogi ought to meditate on me, having only me as the preeminent objective.
युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी नियतमानस: |
शान्तिं निर्वाणपरमां मत्संस्थामधिगच्छति || 15||
yuñjann evaṁ sadātmānaṁ yogī niyata-mānasaḥ
śhantiṁ nirvāṇa-paramāṁ mat-sansthām adhigachchhati
In this way, continually keeping the mind retained in me, the yogi of controlled mind achieves nirvāṇ, and lives in me in supreme harmony.
यदा विनियतं चित्तमात्मन्येवावतिष्ठते |
नि:स्पृह: सर्वकामेभ्यो युक्त इत्युच्यते तदा || 18||
yadā viniyataṁ chittam ātmanyevāvatiṣhṭhate
niḥspṛihaḥ sarva-kāmebhyo yukta ityuchyate tadā
With careful control, they figure out how to pull back the mind from narrow minded longings and bolt it on the unparalleled great of oneself. Such people are said to be in Yoga and are liberated from all longing of the senses.
यथा दीपो निवातस्थो नेङ्गते सोपमा स्मृता |
योगिनो यतचित्तस्य युञ्जतो योगमात्मन: || 19||
yathā dīpo nivāta-stho neṅgate sopamā smṛitā
yogino yata-chittasya yuñjato yogam ātmanaḥ
As the light of a lamp in a windless spot doesn’t flicker, similarly the trained brain of a yogi stays consistent in meditation on oneself.
यत्रोपरमते चित्तं निरुद्धं योगसेवया |
यत्र चैवात्मनात्मानं पश्यन्नात्मनि तुष्यति || 20||
yatroparamate chittaṁ niruddhaṁ yoga-sevayā
yatra chaivātmanātmānaṁ paśhyann ātmani tuṣhyati
At the point when the mind, limited from material exercises, turns out to be still by the act of Yoga, at that point the yogi can observe the spirit through the cleaned and purified mind, and he celebrates in the internal satisfaction.
सुखमात्यन्तिकं यत्तद्बुद्धिग्राह्यमतीन्द्रियम् |
वेत्ति यत्र न चैवायं स्थितश्चलति तत्वत: || 21||
sukham ātyantikaṁ yat tad buddhi-grāhyam atīndriyam
vetti yatra na chaivāyaṁ sthitaśh chalati tattvataḥ
In that cheerful state of Yoga, known as samādhi, one encounters preeminent limitless divine bliss, and therefore arranged, one never deviates from the Eternal Truth.
यं लब्ध्वा चापरं लाभं मन्यते नाधिकं तत: |
यस्मिन्स्थितो न दु:खेन गुरुणापि विचाल्यते || 22||
yaṁ labdhvā chāparaṁ lābhaṁ manyate nādhikaṁ tataḥ
yasmin sthito na duḥkhena guruṇāpi vichālyate
Having picked up that state, one doesn’t believe any accomplishment to be more noteworthy. Being thus established, one isn’t shaken even amidst the greatest catastrophe.
तं विद्याद् दु:खसंयोगवियोगं योगसञ्ज्ञितम् |
स निश्चयेन योक्तव्यो योगोऽनिर्विण्णचेतसा || 23||
taṁ vidyād duḥkha-sanyoga-viyogaṁ yogasaṅjñitam
sa niśhchayena yoktavyo yogo ’nirviṇṇa-chetasā
That state of severance from union with misery is known as Yoga. This Yoga should be resolutely practiced with determination free from pessimism.
सङ्कल्पप्रभवान्कामांस्त्यक्त्वा सर्वानशेषत: |
मनसैवेन्द्रियग्रामं विनियम्य समन्तत: || 24||
शनै: शनैरुपरमेद्बुद्ध्या धृतिगृहीतया |
आत्मसंस्थं मन: कृत्वा न किञ्चिदपि चिन्तयेत् || 25||
saṅkalpa-prabhavān kāmāns tyaktvā sarvān aśheṣhataḥ
manasaivendriya-grāmaṁ viniyamya samantataḥ
śhanaiḥ śhanair uparamed buddhyā dhṛiti-gṛihītayā
ātma-sansthaṁ manaḥ kṛitvā na kiñchid api chintayet
Totally denying all wants emerging from contemplations of the world, one ought to limit the senses from all sides with the mind. Gradually and consistently, with conviction in the brain, the mind will get fixed in God alone and will consider nothing else.
यतो यतो निश्चरति मनश्चञ्चलमस्थिरम् |
ततस्ततो नियम्यैतदात्मन्येव वशं नयेत् || 26||
yato yato niśhcharati manaśh chañchalam asthiram
tatas tato niyamyaitad ātmanyeva vaśhaṁ nayet
At whatever point and any place the fretful and shaky mind meanders, one ought to bring it back and persistently center it around God.
प्रशान्तमनसं ह्येनं योगिनं सुखमुत्तमम् |
उपैति शान्तरजसं ब्रह्मभूतमकल्मषम् || 27||
praśhānta-manasaṁ hyenaṁ yoginaṁ sukham uttamam
upaiti śhānta-rajasaṁ brahma-bhūtam akalmaṣham
Extraordinary supernatural satisfaction and happiness comes to the yogi whose mind is calm, whose interests are stifled, who is without sin, and who sees everything regarding God.
युञ्जन्नेवं सदात्मानं योगी विगतकल्मष: |
सुखेन ब्रह्मसंस्पर्शमत्यन्तं सुखमश्नुते || 28||
yuñjann evaṁ sadātmānaṁ yogī vigata-kalmaṣhaḥ
sukhena brahma-sansparśham atyantaṁ sukham aśhnute
The self-controlled yogi, in this manner joining the self with God, turns out to be liberated from material contamination, and being in steady and constant touch with the Supreme, accomplishes the most elevated condition of flawless bliss.
चञ्चलं हि मन: कृष्ण प्रमाथि बलवद्दृढम् |
तस्याहं निग्रहं मन्ये वायोरिव सुदुष्करम् || 34||
chañchalaṁ hi manaḥ kṛiṣhṇa pramāthi balavad dṛiḍham
tasyāhaṁ nigrahaṁ manye vāyor iva su-duṣhkaram
The mind is very restless, turbulent, strong and obstinate, O Krishna. It appears to me that it is more difficult to control than the wind. – Says Arjuna
असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलम् |
अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते || 35||
asanśhayaṁ mahā-bāho mano durnigrahaṁ chalam
abhyāsena tu kaunteya vairāgyeṇa cha gṛihyate
Lord Krishna stated: O mighty-armed child of Kunti, what you state is right; the mind is hard to limit, without a doubt. Be that as it may, by training and separation, it very well may be controlled.
असंयतात्मना योगो दुष्प्राप इति मे मति: |
वश्यात्मना तु यतता शक्योऽवाप्तुमुपायत: || 36||
asaṅyatātmanā yogo duṣhprāpa iti me matiḥ
vaśhyātmanā tu yatatā śhakyo ’vāptum upāyataḥ
Yoga is hard to achieve for one whose mind is unbridled. In any case, the individuals who have figured out how to control the brain, and who endeavor truly by the correct methods, can accomplish flawlessness in Yoga. This is my opinion.
पूर्वाभ्यासेन तेनैव ह्रियते ह्यवशोऽपि स: |
जिज्ञासुरपि योगस्य शब्दब्रह्मातिवर्तते || 44||
pūrvābhyāsena tenaiva hriyate hyavaśho ’pi saḥ
jijñāsur api yogasya śhabda-brahmātivartate
To be sure, they feel drawn toward God, even without wanting to, on the quality of their past control. Such seekers normally ascend over the ritualistic principles of the scriptures.
प्रयत्नाद्यतमानस्तु योगी संशुद्धकिल्बिष: |
अनेकजन्मसंसिद्धस्ततो याति परां गतिम् || 45||
prayatnād yatamānas tu yogī sanśhuddha-kilbiṣhaḥ
aneka-janma-sansiddhas tato yāti parāṁ gatim
With the aggregated benefits of numerous past births, when these yogis participate in earnest undertaking in gaining further progress, they become cleansed from material wants and accomplish flawlessness in this life itself.
योगिनामपि सर्वेषां मद्गतेनान्तरात्मना |
श्रद्धावान्भजते यो मां स मे युक्ततमो मत: || 47||
yoginām api sarveṣhāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā
śhraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
Of all yogis, those whose minds are always absorbed in me, and who engage in devotion to me with great faith, them I consider to be the highest of all.
Diwali, the festival of light that signifies the victory of good over evil. It brings happiness, progress, prosperity and longevity of life to those who celebrate the festival. People of different faiths, religions, social statuses and other differences come together to light up the moonless night of Diwali with Diyas, lanterns and firecrackers. They share meals and sweets filled with love and joy.
The most widely known story of why Diwali is celebrated is that Hindus, that Diwali is celebrated to mark the return of Lord Rama's return to Ayodhya after rescuing Sita and after 14 years of exile. However, within Hinduism itself, there are variations as to why Diwali is celebrated. Diwali has different but equally significant meanings in different religions.
In Jainism, Diwali holds a very special meaning to it. It commemorates the anniversary of Lord Mahavira's, the last Thirthankar's attainment of Nirvana (final release) or liberation of Mahavira's soul. He attained his freedom from the cycle of reincarnation, Bihar's Pavapur in 527 B.C.E. Lord Mahavira was the 24th and last Thirtankat of Jainism, he gave his spiritual teachings and build the religion as it is today.
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The tales say that Lord Mahavira was aware that his time in this world was coming to end. As soon as the news of his departure spread, the city was drowned in the gloom, the devotees were, grieving, even nature felt the Lord's impending doom and looked crestfallen. Indra the king of Gods, who had prepared himself for Lord's departure, lost his composure and the thought of Lord leaving the world pained him to no end.
Indra, unable to bear the pain and as the advocate of anxious people and natured reached out to Mahavira to persuade him to delay his departure, even if it was just for a moment. However, the Lord calmly told Indra, "Indraraj, lust blinds one. You love my body and hence your request. You are knowledgeable and yet you forget that no one - God, demon, or a human being - can extend the lifeline by even a fraction. The mission for which I was born as a human being is accomplished and a moment more here is a great burden to me. See Indra, there is spring blooming and there is a new dawn of sat, chit, anand. Welcome it." Following the events, the Lord transcended Badar Manyog and Vachan-yog and rested in kayayoga the last vestige of life on the planet. The Lord had achieved Nirvana.
It is said that just as Lord Mahavira attained Moksha, darkness spread all around the world on his loss. The guiding light which had enlightened many souls with his knowledge had burnt out. Indra regaining his composure announced, "Light the lamps. Lord has attained nirvana."
Till this day each year on Diwali, Jains celebrate Diwali to remember their Lord Mahavira and his teachings. In Jain scriptures the occasion was first referred to as dipalikaya meaning light leaving the body, it is said that the earth and the heavens were illuminated with lamps to mark Lord Mahavira's enlightenment.
The place where Lord attained nirvana at Pawanpuri was built into a beautiful picturesque Jain temple, Jal Mandir. It is surrounded by a rectangular tank. People believe that the temple has footprints of Mahavira and that place in the temple is reserved for worship.
Jains offer Nirvan Ladoo to Lord Mahavira after the prayers in all Jain temples all over the worldWikimedia Commons
On the morning of Diwali Jains offer Nirvana Ladoo to Lord Mahavira after the prayers in all Jain temples all over the world. Jains usually avoid firecrackers during Diwali as they have the potential to harm living organisms, which is against one of the most important principles of Ahimsa (non-violence). During Diwali usually, the atmosphere in Jain households is cloaked with austerity, simplicity, serenity, equity, calmness, charity, philanthropy and environment-consciousness. Temples, homes, offices, shops are decorated with lights and diyas. Relatives distribute sweets to each other. These lights symbolize knowledge and the removal of ignorance.
Swetambar Jains observe two days of fasting in remembrance of the penance and sacrifice of Mahavira. Devotees sing and chant hymns and mantras from Jain religious texts in praise of the Tirthankar and congregate for prayer and recite verses from the Uttaradhyayan Sutra which contain the last teachings of Mahavira. The Jain year starts with Pratipada, the next day of Diwali.
Keywords: Jainism, Diwali, celebration, religion, Lord Mahavira, Lanterns lighting, Jain temples, night of Diwali with Diyas.
The Lotus flower is one of the most prominent flowers of India. It holds great importance in Hinduism and Buddhism. Hindu gods and goddesses are often depicted sitting on a bloomed lotus flower. Lord Vishnu, Lord Ganesha, Goddess Laxmi and numerous others are shown holding a lotus flower in one of their hands. What is so important about Lotus? The Lotus flower symbolizes the creation of the universe.
According to Indian philosophies first Lotus plant was born from the navel of Sri Maha Vishnu and upon blooming creator Lord Brahma was born from it, who in turn created the whole universe. This is why it is believed that Lotus is a mythological map of the entire universe.
The Lotus flower is the symbol of purity, spontaneity and divine beauty. In one of his essays, "The Secret of Work", Swami Vivekanand emphasized the significance of lotus leaves as a spiritual detachment from the materialistic work, said, "Just as water cannot wet the lotus leaf, so work cannot bind the unselfish man by giving rise to the attachment to results." Despite blossoming in muddy and unclean water the Lotus flower remains pure and uncontaminated. It is not bothered by its surroundings; it does not try and pretend to be better than it is. It is naturally beautiful; it blooms as it is and withers away. This nature of the Lotus flower teaches us to perform our karma without worrying and being attached to the outcomes of how we'll be perceived. If we free ourselves from external factors which may or may not influence our actions, we'll be able to attain the pristine beauty, grace and purity similar to that of a Lotus flower.
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Hindu deities shown holding a lotus flower in one of their handsWikimedia commons
The transformation of a lotus bud to an enchanting flower can be seen as the path of an individual's consciousness to enlightenment. It represents that to achieve enlightenment an individual must maintain purity in their actions no matter how contaminated the world around them gets, the morality of practical life and practice detachment of spirit from the materialistic illusions of the greedy world. And as the soul develops the petals of the lotus start to unfold. The transformation of the Lotus bud to Lotus flower represents excelling from primal thought to the highest spiritual consciousness. One of the Vedas, Atharva Veda which is the knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life, compares a human's spiritual heart to a lotus.
Lotus and the Sun's love is the prime example of unconditional love. The sun showers the lotus with unconditional love and to reciprocate that love the Lotus flower booms out if a smile. With its roots anchored on the bottoms of the muddy lakes, it rises above the surface and as the Sun's rays fall upon the flower the petals unfold slowly one petal at a time. At night when the sun is gone the flower closes itself and sinks underwater to wait for the sun to appear again. This signifies the element of humans that their cognizance flourishes with the radiance of spiritual thought and cripples in its absence. Despite being underwater the untouched petal is often figuratively used in scriptures to indicate the nature of a Jnani (Enlightened Soul) who is ever blissful, untouched by the sorrows and the changes which are characteristic of the world.
In Buddhist philosophies, the lotus is used to represent the preservability of purity of one's soul amidst the grime of mortal, it is often used as an expression to describe someone with pure and delicate attributes.
The Lotus flower was named the national flower of India as it is tied with the culture, history, and heritage of a nation. The flower reinforces the country's image to the world and plays a part in upholding the qualities and core values of the nation.
Keywords: Lotus symbol of purity, Hinduism, Indian values, lotus flower meaning, importance in Hinduism, prominent flowers of India.
Today, fountain pens are seen as aesthetic souvenirs. In fact, in today's time, if someone uses fountain pens, they are seen as 'superior' or 'royal'. Interestingly, there exists an astounding story behind the usage of fountain pens.
It is believed that the first mention of the fountain pen was in the year 973, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz, who was the caliph of the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa, asked for a pen that would keep his hand clean while using it and would not leave ink marks. So, al-Mu'izz's wish was fulfilled when he received a pen that held the ink inside and could also be held upside-down without spilling the ink. Though, it must be noted that we are not quite aware of how this pen looked or worked.
On the other hand, the next mention of the fountain pen was made in the 17th century, when a German inventor named, Daniel Schwenter invented a pen made from two quills. Interestingly, one quill was placed inside the other in a way that it held the ink, and later on, it was closed with a cork. Furthermore, the ink left the reservoir through a small hole which eventually led to the nib.
By the early 18th century, such pens came to be known as “fountain pens", the name which is still being used. In fact, the first English patent for a fountain pen was issued to Frederick Fölsch in May 1809.
With the advent of time, many patents were released for fountain pens and many designs came into being. As a matter of fact, in the 1940s and 1950s, fountain pens retained their dominance over ball-point pens because the latter were expensive and prone to ink leakages.
Today, though fountain pens are sold and bought, they are used only for the purpose of signing valuable documents. Also, because of the ancient history of fountain pens, they are now considered a “status symbol" in society.
Keywords: Fountain Pens, History of fountain Pen, Stationery, Art, Renaissance.