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This article is completely based on the research work and opinion of Dr Kwame Nantambu. Indian Arrival Day in Trinidad and Tobago marks an important event in the Indian History as well as World History. If one browses through the article, they will come across details about the origins that include the Asian-Chinese Dynasty, “Ganges” river, Indian originality and the label “Indentured Servants.” Dr Kwame Nantambu is a part-time lecturer at Cipriani College of Labour and Co-operative Studies has highlighted certain origins and the historical dynamics of Indian Arrival.
Pieces of evidence and studies have revealed that Africans had ruled all of Asia in the B.C. era. It is quite strange to know that China’s first two and most important dynasties- the Xia (2205-1766 B.C.) and Shang/Chang were ruled by Africans.
Understanding facial dynamics also add an interesting angle in knowing the origin of several communities. If one takes a closer look at the Asian facial type of eyes, one will notice it is slanted. This is one of the common characteristics of people in West Africa, the Sahara and in South Africa among the Kong-San Bushmen. Therefore, as one can already figure it out that these ancient Africans brought numerous facial dynamics when they ruled Asia for centuries and mingled with the indigenous population; just as the African-Moors did in Euro-Spain from 711-1492 A.D.
History bears proof that the earliest occupants or inhabitants of Asia are Africans, from ancient Kemet or Egypt. They were the ones who built pyramids in China, which is located near Siang Fu city in the Shensi province.
Need more proofs? The 1st Chinese emperor, Fu-Hsi (“Son of Heaven”) 2953-2838 B.C. was a woolly-haired Black-African man who invented the oracle of “I Ching” or “The Book of Change.”
In addition to that “martial arts,” a form of sports and the therapy called “acupuncture” today were the gift of the ancient Africans from Kemet/Egypt to China. One can go in person and see the evidence of all these historical truisms painted on the walls of Temple of Ptah. In ancient Kemet or Egypt B.C., the ‘opening of the mouth’ ceremony was believed to have been devised by him.”
“Ganges” is considered one of the most sacred of rivers in India, as there is a spiritual significance attached to it. But, only a few of them is aware of the fact that is named in the honour of the most famous and powerful African or Ethiopian King, namely Pharaoh/King Ganges, who invaded, conquered as well as ruled Asia as far as this river in India circa 1,500 B.C.
History bears witness that Indian “indentured servants” came to Trinidad from India in May 1845. They did not come from Indo. Put another way, Indians were the people who came from India; they were not the Indoes who came from Indo.
Ergo, the descendants of these original Indians are now proud Indian-Trinbagonians in May 2011. They are not Indo-Trinbagonians- this label is totally ahistorical and must not only be immediately relegated to the ash heap of T&T’s cultural or ethnic history but must also be expunged from T&T’s societal lexicon.
“Indentured Servants”: Afri-centric Background
In his magnum opus titled Capitalism and Slavery (1938), Dr. Eric Williams asserts:
“The immediate successor of the Amerindians was not the African but ‘poor whites.’ They were regarded as ‘indentured servants’ because before leaving England, they had to sign a contract binding them to service for a stipulated period in return for their passage. Others were criminals/convicts who were sent by the British government to serve for a specific time on plantations in the Caribbean.” (p.9).
Dynamics of Indian Arrival
Prof. Isaac Dookhan in his book titled A Post Emancipation History of the West Indies (1975), suggests that immigration of Indians to the Caribbean was very attractive due to following reasons:
- During the Colonial rule, the establishment of the British factory system in India destroyed Indian domestic industries, like the spinning of cloth and as a result about tens of thousands were thrown out of work and this resulted in the high unemployment rate.
- Due to the failing of crops and high food prices, parts of India got affected by famine.
- Lands were taken away forcefully or by illegal methods in India and Indians were promised of land for themselves in Carribean
- Indians saw Trinidad and Guyana as a better future for themselves as the Indians were promised higher wages. Labourers were paid between 1-1/2 to 2-1/2 pence a day in India but in Trinidad, they could earn 2 shillings a day and in Guyana, 1 shilling and 9 pence a day, that was enough to lure them.
- Criminals who escaped from the police and were afraid of returning to the village, as well as loafers, could go to the colonies.
- As small scale industries were shut down, displaced workers in cottage industries and agriculture and labourers experienced seasonal unemployment and financial crisis became common. Due to lack of job opportunities, they were ready to listen to the Euro-British recruiters’ propaganda.
- Some Indians were brought to Carribean by giving a false hope that they could find non-agricultural work as policemen, teachers, clerks, and much more in the Caribbean colonies.
- Contacts and communications with returning relatives and friends from Carribean, who came back home with a decent sum of money encouraged Indians to emigrate. (pp.51-52)
The religious breakdown of the Indians who came to Trinidad: 85.3% Hindus, 14% Muslims and .07% Christians.
The result clearly states that majority of them were Hindus as the last Euro-British ship to bring Indians from India was called the “Ganges.” It took about five months to reach Carribean from India as it was via Cape of Good Hope (Africa).
225 Indians arrived at Nelson Island, Trinidad, on the Muslim-owned vessel “Fath Al Razak,” on 30 May 1845. Six Indians died during that journey via the “Kala Paani” or Middle Passage.
Indian Arrival Day—Guyana
18 Indians died in the journey, when two small sailing ships, the “Whitby” and “Hesperus” arrived with 396 immigrants from India on 5 May 1847.
Indian Arrival Day—Jamaica
In Jamaica, it was on 10 May 1845 when 261 Indians arrived on the ship “Blundell Hunter.”
Indians who came to Trinidad consisted of men and women between the age group of 10-30 years and they were from the lower caste people Shudras, and not the Brahmins, who came to Trinidad. Others were agricultural workers and 40 women to 100 men were selected from this section.
The Indians came to Trinidad from the following towns in India: Calcutta, Madras, Pondicherry, Punjab, Lahore, Karachi, Bihar, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Mardan and Kashmir. As of this writing (29 May 2011), the umbilical, ancestral cord of this historic, unforgettable journey is still etched in the names of streets in St. James — location, location, location.
An offer of 5 pounds and five acres of land were made to the Indian “indentured labourers” to stay in the colonies after their contract ended. The offer was different for men and women. While men received a five-year contract, women got only a three-year contract. The stark historical reality is that the Indian “indentured labourers” received the same treatment from the Euro-British government that was afforded to the Euro-British “poor whites” or “indentured servants.” The contract said that 10 years after the contract ended, immigrants could return to India and a free passage will be provided.
In the colonies, the work schedule was such that the Indian “indentured migrants” were required to work only 280 days a year; while women who are pregnant worked part-time on the plantations. In case a woman has children, older women used to look after them.
In 1869, the Euro-Trinidad–colonial government opened up Crown Lands for sale and thousands of ex-indentured Indians acquired ten–acre estates. In 1884, the Euro-colonial-British government established the Peasant Development Programme to assist in the economic development of Indians in Trinidad.
Dispersal of Indians in Diaspora
Research by Prof. Isaac Dookhan reveals the count of Caribbean indenture dispersal of Indians: Trinidad, 143,939 (1845-1917); Jamaica, 36, 412 (1845-1885); Guyana, 238,909 (1847-1917); St. Lucia 4,354; Grenada, 3,200; St. Vincent, 2,472 and St. Kitts, 337 (p.51). Apart from that, Indian “Indentured labourers” also went to Fiji, Belize, Mauritius, Martinique, and Guadeloupe. If one counts the total, it sums up to 1.5 million Indians, who left India in this labour-intensive exercise.
It was on 21 March 1916, when the Euro-colonial–British government went ahead and abolished the Indian indentureship system and it came into effect on 21 March 1917.
– prepared by NewsGram team
On the first day of the two-day meeting of BJP and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) leaders on Tuesday, discussions were held on important issues related to education and the National Education Policy-2020.
Apart from senior RSS leader Suresh Soni, representatives of various organisations associated with the Sangh Parivar -- working in the field of education -- were present in the meeting in New Delhi.
According to sources, Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan, who attended the meeting on behalf of the government, shared information related to the National Education Policy-2020 and the government's policy on important issues related to the education sector. Pradhan also shared details of the efforts being made by the government in the field of education.
Discussions were also held regarding the impact of the situation arising out of Corona and how much it has affected the education sector.
In the meeting, the RSS leaders asked several questions and provided suggestions to the Union Minister regarding the education policy of the government.
According to the sources, RSS wants the policy to be implemented expeditiously. All aspects related to the policy were discussed in Tuesday's meeting.
On the second and the last day of the meeting on Wednesday, special issues related to education will be discussed in which representatives of various organisations of the Sangh, Union Ministers and several BJP leaders will be take part.
Meanwhile, in order to convey its point of view to the government on various issues, the Sangh keeps on calling such coordination meetings related to specific issues, in which RSS representatives -- working in that particular area -- provide feedback to the government. (IANS/JB)
Keywords: BJP, RSS, New Education Policy, Education, India
An old saying, "prevention is better than cure" should be the first scoop in the cup of excitement if you are out to explore the world. To make traveling safe, make sure you check some practical safety tips before and while on the journey.
Here are some tips that can keep you safe, ignoring the hurdles and risks during traveling.
Health issues are of major concern while traveling. These risks are common especially when you are traveling to a place where the diet is different from what you are used to. Health conditions like stomach infections, climatic diseases like flu, cold, etc can knock at your door.
Before traveling, make sure you did complete research about the weather conditions of those destinations where you planned to stay. Keep all the stuff with you, like basic medications, and clothes that will be helpful to keep you safe from the weather and ensure safe travelling.
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Travelers sometimes encounter the risk of being scammed at the departures or during the flights. This risk becomes more obvious when you don't speak the familiar language or don't have complete knowledge about the complex procedures.
Any stranger can come to you regarding the procedure completion and take advantage of your ignorance and fool you. Stay alert for these scams and keep these things in mind.
●Always use the ATMs that are linked to the banks.
●Know the basic procedure of checking
●Do not wear expensive jewelry to show off
●Keep the emergency services phone numbers
●Put the locks on the suitcases
To avoid transportation mishaps, you should search for all forms of transportation before leaving the place that can take you to the planned destination Photo by Guilherme Stecanella
The transportation you choose for your trip can be a blessing or sometimes a tricky tournament. To avoid transportation mishaps, you should search for all forms of transportation before leaving the place that can take you to the planned destination. And especially when traveling to faraway places.
Choose the one that is comfortable and free of hassles. For example, while choosing to travel by air, make sure you know the flight schedules. Make sure you book your flights with trusted airlines. International flights from Australia, Cathay Pacific, is the one of the best in this regard.
Apart from checking the flight's schedule, try to book your ticket in advance so you don't end up stranded on the ticket booth asking for tickets and no time slot is spared for a specific time.
Whether you are traveling domestically or internationally, you need identification. When traveling outside the country, your passport is the most important thing to carry and keep a check on. The most valuable traveling documents you should check on are:
Keep copies of these documents in case they get lost by mistake. In the case of stolen documents, the copies of these will help to make the process of getting them back a bit easier.
To avoid trouble, check out the guidelines such as rules and regulations. Follow the policies that are required. Before zipping your bags, check the customer's reviews to see what they faced worse while traveling through certain transportation if you chose the same one and what advice they shared. This will help you avoid those things that can put you in the same situation.
Before traveling, know the surroundings. Be aware of how the locals of that area talk and dress. Usually, tourists or travelers carry lots of cash and other valuables with them. That brings them under the spotlight. Those people who show off their appearances as a traveler from a different place and culture are more at risk of being scammed.
You can avoid those scams by:
●Dressing yourself like a local
●Don't show off yourself by standing in the middle of a crowd and take pictures
●Don't make it apparent if you get lost in the streets
Before traveling to some new place, especially when you are traveling outside the country, make research about the language spoken there. It helps you a lot, especially when you get lost or injured. Try to learn the basic phrases in the language being spoken in that particular area you are traveling to. Phrases like:
●I need help
●Where is the hospital
●Please guide me on the way to my hotel, etc.
If you are traveling outside the country, getting traveling insurance is recommended Photo by Denise Jans on Unsplash
Experiences matter. It is a bit hard to know the place you planned to visit if you have not visited it before. Make sure you find the experienced travelers who already have visited. Take advice from them. Ask them about their experience and what things you should do and what not. Do's and don'ts of that particular area. You can watch youtube videos that tell the lifestyle of a specific place.
Also read: 5 Must-Haves to Travel Light
If you are traveling outside the country, getting traveling insurance is recommended. It covers all unexpected injuries. Unfortunately, if you get a trip to the hospital or in case you lose your belongings, traveling insurance covers everything for you.
ATMs are the common places for thieves to steal the information of travelers. No doubt, they are the most convenient spot to take the money in the right currency. But it is recommended to stay cautious while using ATMs.
Check your back if anyone is stalking you or the person standing behind the mirrors waiting for his move, is not too close to finding out all the figures and info you entered.
You might not be familiar with the new place you are traveling to. To avoid uncertain situations like moving in the wrong direction, make sure you set the GPS in your phone so you reach your destination safely and on time without going through any hassle.
(Disclaimer: This article is sponsored and contains some commercial links)
Keywords: Travel, Tips, Apps, Language, Guidelines,
As a company, Facebook doesn't need much of an introduction. If you're not a member of the network, chances are you've seen or at the very least heard of it. Facebook is generally recognized as the most utilized social networking site. Facebook is used regularly by more than 2 billion people; it is probably an essential component of several people's online presence and daily routine.
The software for a website called "Facemash" was written by Zuckerberg, then a second-year Harvard student, in the year 2003. He put his talent to improper use by hacking into the security network of Harvard. To fill his new website, he duplicated the student ID pictures used by the dorms and uploaded them there. Anyone who visited the site could see photos of two students side-by-side and choose who among the two was "hot" or "not." Facemash opened on October 28, 2003, but a few days later, it was closed. Zuckerberg faced significant allegations of breach of security, infringement of intellectual property rights, invasion of personal privacy, and even expulsion from Harvard.
"The Facebook," now known as "Facebook," was founded in a Harvard dorm room on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. | Photo by Souvik Banerjee on Unsplash
Facebook, which has now grown to become the world's most popular social networking site, was sparked by a failed attempt to encourage internet users to evaluate each other's pictures. "The Facebook," now known as "Facebook," was founded in a Harvard dorm room on February 4, 2004, by Mark Zuckerberg, Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes. The site was named after the directories sent to university students to assist them in getting to know one another better. His troubles began again six days later when Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra charged them with stealing their ideas for the HarvardConnection social networking website, which they were developing at the time. Later, a lawsuit was filed against Zuckerberg, but the case was finally resolved without going to court. At first, only Harvard students were allowed to register on the website. However, over time, Zuckerberg sought the assistance of a handful of his classmates to assist in expanding the website.
ALSO READ: The Other Side Of Social Media
Sean Parker was appointed as the company's president in 2004. An investment of $12.7 million in the company from Accel Partners in the following year allowed for developing a high school student-focused version of the network. Facebook stated in September 2006 that anybody who was at least 13 years old and had a valid email address could become a member of the social networking site.
According to a study by the analytics website Compete.com, Facebook was declared the most widely used social networking service globally by 2009. | Wikimedia Commons
According to a study by the analytics website Compete.com, Facebook was declared the most widely used social networking service globally by 2009. The site's revenues ultimately propelled Zuckerberg to the status of the world's youngest multi-billionaire; he has done his bit to help others benefit from their success. In 2010, he and other wealthy businessmen committed to giving at least half of their fortune to charitable causes. Zuckerberg and his wife, Priscilla Chan, have contributed a total of $25 million to the Ebola virus's battle. Additionally, they stated that they would donate 99 percent of their Facebook shares to the Chan Zuckerberg Initiative, a non-profit organization dedicated to improving lives via education, health, scientific research, and energy.
Keywords: harvard, Harvard connection, facemash, social networking, zuckerberg, facebook