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Washington, Genetic variations and not complying with treatment regimens may account for some failures of an anti-HIV drug to treat and prevent the infection.



The drug Tenofovir, marketed as Viread, is processed differently according to cell locations, the study said.

This is to see if the drug is eventually marketed as a topical gel, it can work differently depending on whether it is applied to the vagina or the rectum.

“Our results suggest that in future, before prescribing tenofovir to a patient, a doctor could order genetic testing and know in advance if it works, and prescribe a different drug if it won’t,” said Namandje Bumpus, associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

In the study described in the journal EBio-Medicine, the team focused on a search for the human enzymes that convert tenofovir from its original form to an activated one that combats HIV.

The team “knocked out” genes for phosphate-adding enzymes one by one, then exposed the tissues’ cells to tenofovir.

They found that the enzyme called pyruvate kinase was different from that which performed the second activation step in the colorectal tissues.

The team sequenced the genes of 142 women who had participated in a clinical trial of tenofovir to look for genetic variations that might have affected the function of the enzyme.

They found 71 such variants, several of which a computer model predicted would make the enzyme ineffective.

Altogether, eight percent of the women had genetic variants that were likely to make them unable to convert tenofovir to its activated form.

“Tenofovir has been shown in trials to be very effective, so when it does not work, researchers and clinicians tend to assume the individual just was not taking the drug as directed,” Bumpus said.

(IANS)


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"Malgudi is where we all belong, and where we wish we lived."

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R. K. Narayan, one of the most well-known and popular writers within India and outside India is the creator of this town and the occurrences of this town. The stories follow the characters Swami and his friends through their everyday lives. Be it the story of fake astrologers who scam and loot the people by his cleverness, or the story of a blind beggar and his dog where the money blinded the man with greed; each story has a lesson to learn, morals and values hidden in it. As the stories are simple, easy to understand yet heart-touching it makes it easy for the kids to connect with each character and imagine the story as if the reader themselves were the protagonist of the story. In simple words, we can say that R.K. Narayan simply told stories of ordinary people trying to live their simple lives in a changing world.

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Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourised in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated

The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) has directed Pak TV channels to stop airing what it calls indecency and intimacy in dramas, Samaa TV reported.

A notification issued by the authority states that it has been receiving numerous complaints from viewers who believe that the content being depicted in dramas does not represent the "true picture of Pakistani society".

"PEMRA finally got something right: Intimacy and affection between married couples isn't 'true depiction of Pakistani society and must not be 'glamourized'. Our 'culture' is control, abuse, and violence, which we must jealously guard against the imposition of such alien values," said Reema Omer, Legal Advisor, South Asia, International Commission of Jurists.

"Hugs, caress scenes, extramarital affairs, vulgar and bold dressing, bed scenes and intimacy of married couples are being glamourized in utter disregard to Islamic teachings and culture of Pakistani society," PEMRA stated, as per the report.

The authority added that it has directed channels time and again to review content with "indecent dressing, controversial and objectionable plots, bed scenes and unnecessary detailing of events".

Most complaints received by the PEMRA Call Centre during September concern drama serial "Juda Huay Kuch is Tarah", which created quite a storm on social media for showing an unwitting married couple as foster siblings in a teaser for an upcoming episode. However, it only turned out to be a family scheme after the full episode aired, but by that time criticism had mounted on HUM TV for using the themes of incest to drive the plot, the report said. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Pakistan, Islam, Serials, Dramas, Culture, Teachings.