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One of the chief Rigvedic Rivers, as per the Hindu scripts and texts, Saraswati River is also famously known as Ghaggar-Hakra River.In the early Rigvedic ‘Nadistuti’ hymn Saraswati River is mentioned between the east of Yamuna and west of Sutlej . But later in the other Vedic scriptures like Tandya and Jaiminiya Brahmanas as well as the Mahabharata it is mentioned that the Saraswati River dried up in a desert. This river is a trans-boundary between the two neighbouring countries India and Pakistan . Also this river flows through both the nations together only in the monsoon.

In the area prior to the Ottu barrage, the Saraswati River is anciently known as the Ghaggar and where it crosses this barrage it becomes Hakra. The Ghaggar river acts as a tans-boundary river to India in the monsoon weather whereas the Hakra, which is an extension of Ghaggar in India becomes the dehydrated canal in Pakistan. The Ghaggar originates from the Shivalik Mountains of the Himachal Pradesh and runs through the states of Punjab,Haryana and even flows through some parts of Rajasthan. Two irrigation channels are supplied by this river in Rajasthan.


The dehydration of this river is caused by detention of the tributaries by the Yamuna River and Indus River System . Also the cutting down of trees: Deforestation and overgrazing are the other reasons of the dehydration of the river later and the desiccation in most of its drainage basin. Though originally all these events took place much before than 1900 BCE, it is believed by some historians, researchers and environmentalists that all this might have taken place in the 1900 BCE itself.

It is believed that about some 10,000 years ago, during the liquefaction of the Ice Age glaciers in the Himalayan Mountain Ranges, the Ghaggar River was flowing in full strength, which can be understood by the broad palaeo-channel of this river. Also it is seen that it gradually joined the currently waterless canal of the Hakra River, which led to the river pouring into the Rann of Kutch.

In the year 1998 debates regarding the contemporary Tons River which was earlier the upper portion of the Saraswati River, had taken place. It is said that the Tons River was supplied by the glaciers in the Himalayas and formed the major upper part of the Saraswati River. This River features some of the stones of quartzite and metamorphous stones at is plateau, but the lower terraces of these basins do not seem to have such type of stones.

Also there have been surveys which show that this river has been a part of several important dynasties and also it is demonstrated that Bronze Age deposits coming from the Himalayan glaciers are not to be found beside the Ghaggar-Hakra. Hence it may be concluded as per these surveys that the Saraswati River did not originate from these towering mountains.

Reference:Maps of India


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Photo by GOI.

New Education Policy 2020

On the first day of the two-day meeting of BJP and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) leaders on Tuesday, discussions were held on important issues related to education and the National Education Policy-2020.

Apart from senior RSS leader Suresh Soni, representatives of various organisations associated with the Sangh Parivar -- working in the field of education -- were present in the meeting in New Delhi.

According to sources, Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan, who attended the meeting on behalf of the government, shared information related to the National Education Policy-2020 and the government's policy on important issues related to the education sector. Pradhan also shared details of the efforts being made by the government in the field of education.

Discussions were also held regarding the impact of the situation arising out of Corona and how much it has affected the education sector.

In the meeting, the RSS leaders asked several questions and provided suggestions to the Union Minister regarding the education policy of the government.

According to the sources, RSS wants the policy to be implemented expeditiously. All aspects related to the policy were discussed in Tuesday's meeting.

On the second and the last day of the meeting on Wednesday, special issues related to education will be discussed in which representatives of various organisations of the Sangh, Union Ministers and several BJP leaders will be take part.

Meanwhile, in order to convey its point of view to the government on various issues, the Sangh keeps on calling such coordination meetings related to specific issues, in which RSS representatives -- working in that particular area -- provide feedback to the government. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: BJP, RSS, New Education Policy, Education, India


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