Friday September 20, 2019

Neanderthal Genes Helped Early Human Beings to Fight Flu, Hepatitis

The team examined a list of more than 4,500 genes in modern humans that are known to interact in some way with viruses

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Visitors take pictures of models representing Flores, human and Neanderthal women in the "Musee des Confluences," a new science and anthropology museum in Lyon, central France, Dec. 18, 2014. Neanderthals had a long run in Europe, but disappeared about 40,000 years ago after modern humans showed up. (VOA)

Inter-breeding with Neanderthal gave early human beings the ability to fend off dangerous diseases similar to flu and hepatitis, says a research.

The findings, led by researchers from the Universities of Arizona and Stanford, showed that while Neanderthal became extinct about 40,000 years ago, many modern Europeans and Asians today carry about 2 per cent of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes.

Early humans inherited 152 genes from Neanderthal that helped them fight off modern day HIV, influenza A and hepatitis C whenever they encountered them.

“It’s not a stretch to imagine that when modern humans met up with Neanderthals, they infected each other with pathogens that came from their respective environments,” said lead author David Enard, Assistant Professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona.

Neanderthal model
Neanderthal model. Reconstruction of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) based on the La Chapelle-aux-Saints fossils. Neanderthals inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is thought that they had language and a complex social structure, living in small family groups and hunting for food. It is not known why Neanderthals became extinct, but one theory is that they were outcompeted by modern humans (Homo sapiens). Reconstruction by Elisabeth Daynes of the Daynes Studio, Paris, France.

“By inter-breeding with each other, they also passed along genetic adaptations to cope with some of those pathogens,” he added.

According to studies, modern humans began moving out of Africa and into Eurasia about 70,000 years ago.

When they arrived, they met up with Neanderthals who, along with their own ancestors, had been adapting to that geographic area for hundreds of thousands of years.

The Eurasian environment shaped Neanderthals’ evolution, including the development of adaptations to viruses and other pathogens that were present there but not in Africa.

In the study, published in the journal Cell, the team showed that the genetic defences that Neanderthals passed to humans were against RNA viruses, which encode their genes with RNA, a molecule that is chemically similar to DNA.

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Neanderthal man. Flickr

The team examined a list of more than 4,500 genes in modern humans that are known to interact in some way with viruses.

Enard then checked his list against a database of sequenced Neanderthal DNA and identified 152 fragments of those genes from modern humans that were also present in Neanderthals.

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In addition, the findings also demonstrate that it is possible to comb through a species’ genome and find evidence of ancient diseases that once afflicted it, even when the viruses responsible for those diseases are long gone.

This technique would work especially well for RNA viruses, whose RNA-based genomes are more frail than their DNA counterparts, Enard noted. (IANS)

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WHO Urges Countries to Invest in Affordable Treatments to Eliminate Hepatitis by 2030

The WHO study finds hepatitis could be eliminated as a public health threat in 67 low-and middle-income countries by 2030 for a cost of $6 billion a year

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FILE - Mexican Health Ministry representatives give migrants free shots for the flu, hepatitis B, tetanus, and preventible children's diseases at the Barretal shelter for migrants in Tijuana, Mexico, Dec. 6, 2018. VOA

In advance of World Hepatitis Day on Sunday (July 28), the World Health Organization (WHO) is urging countries to invest in affordable treatments that could reduce the number of infections and save millions of lives. Hepatitis B and C are viral infections transmitted through contact with blood. Those two viruses cause cirrhosis and liver cancer and constitute about 96 percent of all hepatitis-related deaths.

The World Health Organization says hepatitis B and C infections affect about 325 million people globally and kill about 1.4 million every year. WHO’s hepatitis team leader, Marc Bulterys said that makes hepatitis the second most lethal infectious disease just behind tuberculosis.

“The number of deaths from hepatitis has been increasing over the past two decades,” he added. “What is worse, hepatitis has been a silent killer.  Of the 257 million people that we estimate are living with hepatitis B infection, only about one in 10 has been diagnosed and only approximately 4.5 million people are on treatment.” Bulterys said of the 71 million people living with chronic hepatitis C, only one in five has been diagnosed and 5 million treated.

The WHO study finds hepatitis could be eliminated as a public health threat in 67 low-and middle-income countries by 2030 for a cost of $6 billion a year or a total of nearly $60 billion. These countries account for 75 percent of the world’s population.  The WHO says new hepatitis infections would be reduced by 90 percent and deaths by 65 percent.

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The WHO study finds hepatitis could be eliminated as a public health threat in 67 low-and middle-income countries by 2030 for a cost of $6 billion a year. VOA

When calculated on an individual basis, Bulterys said the cost of treatment is very cheap. He says the availability of generic drugs is making it possible. He says a three-month course of treatment for hepatitis C costs about $40.00 in India, Pakistan and Egypt, which produce their own generics.

Bulterys  told VOA the world’s other poorer countries can buy the drugs for $89.00 through the U.N. Development Program and Gavi, a global vaccine alliance. However, he said the cost remains high in richer countries.

ALSO READ: WHO: Vaccine Slows the Spread of Ebola Virus in Eastern Congo

“So, a cure that in the United States just as little as two years ago cost $84,000, $1,000 a tablet for the three-month cure is now available for just $89 in these low-and middle-income countries that have access to generics,” he said. He added that the price has come down in the U.S. and people now can purchase Hepatitis C pills for about $18,000 under the U.S. Medicaid program in California.

As for Hepatitis B, he noted that a year of treatment for that viral disease costs less than $30.00 everywhere.  That, he explained is because the patent on these drugs expired last year. (VOA)