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The bacterial diversity on plastic bottles was twice as great as on samples collected from the surrounding seawater. Pixabay

An international team of researchers has found that the combined environmental threat of plastic pollution and ocean acidification is having significant impacts on species living in our oceans.

The study, published in the journal Marine Pollution Bulletin, found that after three weeks of being submerged in the ocean, the bacterial diversity on plastic bottles was twice as great as on samples collected from the surrounding seawater.


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However, in areas of elevated carbon dioxide, a large number of taxonomic groups – including bacteria that play an important role in carbon cycling – were negatively impacted.

The research also showed that while many groups of bacteria were shared between plastic, free-living, and particle-associated samples, almost 350 were found uniquely on plastics.

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“The study adds to growing evidence that the increasing presence of plastic marine debris is providing a novel habitat for bacteria,” said study authors from the University of Tsukuba in Japan.

However, their results highlight that environmental conditions and local ecological processes will play an important role in determining its broader impact over the coming decades.


To see beneficial species dwindling while harmful species thrive is an obvious present and future cause for concern. Pixabay

Scientists submerged a number of plastic bottles in seas off the Japanese Island of Shikine, a region renowned for its CO2 seeps where the escaping gas dissolves into the seawater and creates conditions similar to that expected to occur worldwide in coming years.

Wany to read more in Hindi? Checkout: बाइडन की जीत पर जेफ बेजोस, बिल गेट्स की कुछ ऐसी रही प्रतिक्रिया

They then used a combination of DNA sequencing and statistical techniques to analyze how bacteria colonize the plastic in comparison to the surrounding natural environment, and whether the increased CO2 levels would cause changes in the bacteria’s distribution.

“Discarded plastic drinking bottles have become a common sight in our oceans and we were expecting to see them being colonized by different types of bacteria,” said study lead author Ben Harve from the University of Tsukuba.

“We also predicted that raised CO2 levels would cause significant changes in the bacterial colonies, but it was still surprising to see the extent of that change and how the raised levels affected species differently,” Harve added.

ALSO READ: UP Government To Charge Fine From Those Who Found Polluting Ganga

To see beneficial species dwindling while harmful species thrive is an obvious present and future cause for concern, according to the researchers.

Researchers from Tsukuba, Plymouth, and other collaborators have published several studies over the past decade showing the threats posed by ocean acidification in terms of habitat degradation and a loss of biodiversity. (IANS)


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The aim of the book is to teach children that families can exist in different forms, and show them how to accept the diversity in family backgrounds.

By Siddhi Jain

Delhi-based author Pritisha Borthakur is set to release her new book, 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories'. The 1,404-word children's book was put together to address a new kind of societal debacle in the family system. The author says the aim is to teach children that families can exist in different forms, and show them how to accept the diversity in family backgrounds.

The author who named the book after her twin sons -- Puhor and Niyor -- is a parent who has seen and heard the tales of ridicule and discrimination suffered by many in India and beyond. She says the book is an artistic illustration for kids that details how different families can live and coexist. Whether it's children with two dads or two moms, children with a single dad or single mom, and even multiracial family units, Borthakur's book teaches love, understanding, and compassion towards unconventional families.

Beyond race, gender, color, and ethnicity which have formed the bases for discrimination since the beginning of time, this book aims to bring to light a largely ignored issue. For so long, single parents have been treated like a taboo without any attempt to understand their situations; no one really cares how or why one's marriage ended but just wants to treat single parents as villains simply for choosing happiness and loving their children.

Homosexual parents, a relatively new family system, is another form that has suffered hate and discrimination for many years. Pritisha emphasizes the need to understand that diversity in people and family is what makes the world beautiful and colourful. 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race, and even differences in background

four children standing on dirt during daytime 'Puhor and Niyor's Mural of Family Stories' is a firm but compassionate statement against all forms of discrimination on the bases of sexual identity, gender, race and even differences in background. | Photo by Ben Wicks on Unsplash


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* Refrain from harsh soaps: You should be mindful of the soap you are using to wash your hands. Your soap can have a moisturizing element in it like aloe vera or shea butter. Ensure that you're washing your hands with normal water as hot water can make your hand's skin dry and scaly.

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