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When cotton pants no longer worked as a durable enough fabric, the French decided to create a different kind of weave: a twill weave that includes one blue thread and one white thread. This came to be known as the infamous denim.
The denim is named after Serge de Nimes, a small town in France, where this fabric is believed to have originated. The actual reason for its origin is speculated. Some believe that it was made for the miners, and that it was made during the California gold rush (1800s), when thousands of men came to America, to find treasure in the rocky sands.
The Gold Rush was a time when men were desperate enough to do anything to earn money. They traded diamonds, gold, rocks, money, everything. It was a time when human greed blinded every other sense in the continent. Levi Strauss, and Jacob Davis, partnered together to supply men with work wear, and made a fortune from the high demand.
One of the first denim brands: Levi's Image source: Photo by Varun Gaba on Unsplash
In the 1930s, the denim assumed a new name. It began to be known as 'Jeans', named after Genoa in France. Hollywood heavily promoted these pants as a fashion statement. People began to prefer them to regular pants because they were riveted in all the places that regular pants easily tore. Jeans did not fray quickly, and even if they did, it did not hinder the functionality of the outfit. The original form that denim became popular was the dungaree, or jumpsuit before it became known as pants.
Post World War II, the jeans became the American Navy's holiday wear. They wore them as some kind of identity while on leave. Companies like Lee and Wrangler, took this as an opportunity to expand business, and jeans became something that had come to stay.
Jeans today, are worn with stickers, rips, cuts, and colors Image source: Photo by Alicia Petresc on Unsplash
The typical pair of jeans are dyed indigo. They are interwoven with a clean white cotton thread in such a way that the outside is blue but the inside is white. The pockets and sides are joined using double stitches, and riveted in certain points. These days, stickers, stripes, and cuts are made on the jeans for a fashionable look. They are called 'distressed jeans' when they appear faded and ripped. This is the rage among youngsters who see it as a form of rebellion to be seen in these pants. Jeans that are not blue are dyed with Sulphur compounds to give different shades and patterns. Some of them are even washed with acid.
Jeans these days come with elastane for those who want a slim fit, or stretchy pants. They come in a range of colors, styles, and forms. The denim is still the most durable and functional fabric ever invented.
Keywords: Jeans, Denim, France, America, Gold Rush, Navy, Workwear
The two most populous states in the United States, California, and Texas, have long competed to attract companies and talent. Data from the 2020 U.S. census show that Texas is drawing more people, including Californians. Texans have a saying: “Everything is bigger in Texas.” By size, it is the largest state in the contiguous U.S. There are many reasons why the state’s population is also getting bigger. “Your quality of life is so much higher here in Austin,” said Alex Backus, who moved with his teenage daughter from San Jose, California, to the Texas capital almost two years ago.
Backus has been bouncing back and forth between the two states over the years. He said that while he missed the outdoor activities and mild weather in California’s Bay Area, it is not a financially friendly place for young adults such as his daughter. “Most of the kids that are in the Bay Area and they graduate, they kind of need to leave the Bay Area because it’s so expensive. I kind of figured in Austin, there was a shot that she might actually choose to try to stay in Austin to go to college and start her life,” Backus explained.
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Correlation between states
“They each have a singular history. Both of them were governed by Spain and Mexico. They both have a sort of a nation-state identity unlike any other state,” said Bill Fulton, director of Rice University’s Kinder Institute for Urban Research, in Houston. Fulton moved to Texas from California for his current job. He has been studying the migration patterns between the two states through census data and noticed a correlation. “When home prices in California go up, more people move to Texas. When home prices in California go down, fewer people move to Texas,” Fulton said.
Census and politics
While California still has 10 million more residents than Texas, the migration patterns of each state have been going on for years, and Texas has won the popularity contest, according to the 2020 census results. For the first time in the state’s history, California, a Democratic bastion, lost one U.S. congressional seat determined by the state’s population. Republican-leaning Texas, the biggest winner of all 50 states, gained two seats.
While the impact will be felt in Washington, Fulton said its political significance depends on who is moving from California to Texas — whether they are conservative Republicans who do not like liberal-leaning California with its state tax and more regulations, or Democrats from California looking for better opportunities in Texas. “It may well be that a flow from California to Texas increases the likelihood that at some point in the future, Texas will turn blue. And if it does, of course, that’s good news for the Democrats and bad news for the Republicans nationally because then the two largest states are locked in to be Democratic states. But that would still be a way off if it happens,” Fulton said.
Impact of pandemic
During the pandemic, out-migration from expensive states such as California and New York picked up. States with lower costs of living, including Texas and Florida, are seeing an influx of new residents, said Los Angeles-based Eric Willett, director of research and thought leadership for the Pacific Southwest division at commercial real estate firm CBRE.
He studied the impact of the pandemic on people’s decision to move by looking at data from the U.S. Postal Service. With people working from home, there was a trend of people across the U.S. leaving denser urban regions for homes in the suburbs. “Whether it’s a backyard or an extra bedroom, those sorts of living environments became much more highly desired during the pandemic,” Willett said. The urban dwellers who moved tend to be young, affluent, highly educated, and childless.
While Willett found that most Californians who moved did so within the state, the migration patterns of people who chose to move out of state were consistent with pre-pandemic trends. “The states that saw the most out-migration last year are also the states that saw the most outmigration in 2019. It just was an accelerated path of out-migration,” Willett said.
Elon Musk, the co-founder of Tesla and SpaceX, moved last year from California to Texas, where his business priorities are located. Tesla Cybertruck and SpaceX’s spaceport are in Texas. Tech companies Oracle and HP Inc., as well as CBRE, have relocated their headquarters to Texas. Japanese automaker Toyota also chose to relocate its North American headquarters from California to Texas, which is not only known for its ample housing and lower cost of living but also its business-friendly environment. Nicknamed “Silicon Hills,” Austin has been an attractive location for many tech companies.
“There’s no question that Texas has fewer business regulations than California,” Fulton said. Texas may be popular, but Willett said it does not mean there is a mass exodus of businesses from California.”Increasingly, companies are looking to diversify their talent base, and California is a mature market in many industries. And it makes sense for these companies to look elsewhere to continue to expand their access to talent,” Willett explained.
“Facebook and Google are constantly fighting for downtown office space of more than a million square feet (92,903 square meters). They’re looking for additional properties, and it just seems like every company is trying to expand their presence here in Austin,” said Job Hammond of the Austin Board of Realtors. Hammond, originally from Northern California, moved to Austin 14 years ago when he relocated for his then-employer Oracle. He is now a relocation expert who helps people from other cities find homes in Austin.
“They all seemingly want the same sort of thing — a good quality of life, a reasonable price in terms of a home, and, in some cases, to avoid state income tax,” Hammond said. Texas Realtors, the state-level association of realtors, reported that in the first quarter of 2021, the median sales price of single-family homes in the state reached $275,000. In contrast, the California Association of Realtors reported that the median price of a single-family home in the state in March was $758,990.
“A California family will cash in their home equity to get a bigger house in Texas, and they’re probably not going to reverse that pattern,” Fulton said. Foreign investors are also noticing Texas. Hammond has helped investors from Malaysia, Nepal, China, Europe, and Mexico find properties.”I was on the phone about 12 o’clock midnight with somebody in Shanghai who’s interested in not having cash in the bank because she’s worried about things like inflation,” Hammond said.
Backus has enjoyed the live music and arts scene in Austin and picked up surfing on Lake Austin. But Texas summers are a lot hotter than they are in Northern California, with its milder climate, diverse geography, and plentiful biking opportunities and outdoor activities, which Backus misses. “I still have my home there. It’s rented out there, and I’m questioning whether I should keep it because I might want to go back. I do miss going snow skiing,” he said. (VOA/JC)
One Tyrannosaurus rex seems scary enough. Now picture 2.5 billion of them. That’s how many of the fierce dinosaur kings probably roamed Earth over the course of a couple of million years, a new study finds.
Using calculations based on body size, sexual maturity, and the creatures’ energy needs, a team at the University of California, Berkeley figured out just how many T. rex lived over 127,000 generations, according to a study in Thursday’s journal Science. It’s a first-of-its-kind number, but just an estimate with a margin of error that is the size of a T. rex.
“That’s a lot of jaws,” said study lead author Charles Marshall, director of the University of California Museum of Paleontology. “That’s a lot of teeth. That’s a lot of claws.”
The species roamed North America for about 1.2 million to 3.6 million years, meaning the T. rex population density was small at any one moment. There would be about two in a place the size of the Washington, D.C., or 3,800 in California, the study said.
“Probably like a lot of people, I literally did a double-take to make sure that my eyes hadn’t deceived me when I first read that 2.5 billion T. rexes have ever lived,” said Macalester College paleobiologist Kristi Curry Rogers, who wasn’t part of the study.
Marshall said the estimate helps scientists figure the preservation rate of T. rex fossils and underscores how lucky the world is to know about them at all. About 100 or so T. rex fossils have been found — 32 of them with enough material to figure they are adults.
If there were 2.5 million T. rex instead of 2.5 billion, we would probably have never known they existed, he said.
Marshall’s team calculated the population by using a general biology rule of thumb that says the bigger the animal, the less dense its population. Then they added estimates of how much energy the carnivorous T. rex needed to stay alive — somewhere between a Komodo dragon and a lion. The more energy required, the less dense the population.
They also factored in that the T. rex reached sexual maturity somewhere around 14 to 17 years old and lived at most 28 years.
Given uncertainties in the creatures’ generation length, range, and how long they roamed, the Berkeley team said the total population could be as little as 140 million or as much as 42 billion with 2.4 billion as the middle value.
The science about the biggest land-living carnivores of all time is important, “but the truth, as I see it, is that this kind of thing is just very cool,” said Purdue University geology professor James Farlow. (VOA/KB)
Call it a safety precaution or your chance to finally have some “me time” in the pandemic, solo travel is unquestionably one thing that is bound to appeal to young travelers, especially women. Owing to various outdoor activities, Mammoth Lakes in California is one location that naturally lends itself to social distancing.
From superb views on hiking trails to thrilling rides at the number one bike park within the USA, summertime is jam-packed with outdoor activities. Whether you’re exploring the geographic area on horseback or sampling exquisite cuisines at a festival, Mammoth Lakes delivers excitement for everybody. In fact, this small mountain city has no shortage of water adventures. The clear and pristine lakes are perfect for dipping your toes or catching a trophy trout, beckon.
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What to do once you get here?
Adventure is available year-round in Mammoth Lakes. Outdoor adventure activities are a great way to enjoy a quiet moment in nature as a solo traveler. During winter you can ski and snowboard Mammoth Mountain or take off into the wilderness on your cross-country skis. When spring hits, you can ski and also celebrate the fishing opener on the same day. The summer melts away the snow, opening roads to Devil’s Postpile National Monument, 101-foot Rainbow Falls, and the gateway to Yosemite National Park.
Some claim autumn is the best season because you get all of the sightseeing of summer plus spectacular fall colors and fewer visitors. From Hiking, Kayaking, and Paddle-Boating to Skiing and Snowshoeing you’re guaranteed to have an adventure-packed vacation. There’s nothing quite like camping in this mountain town. The Mammoth Lakes area is home to more than 800 campsites, many of them located near alpine lakes and in forested streamside settings.
Scenic views – Hiking and Backpacking
Hiking in the Eastern Sierra is spectacular year-round. In spring, the sharp and craggy granite peaks of the Sierra Nevada Range from a dramatic backdrop for meadows brightly colored by wildflowers. In the summer, you’ll never tire of finding secret alpine lakes, lush aspen-lined streams, and forested hideaways tucked away in the mountains.
In fall, early snow in the high-country contrasts beautifully with the vibrant golds and oranges of aspens and willows alight with their display of autumn colors. There are plenty of short, easy, and family-friendly hikes. For more ambitious hikers and backpackers, check out trails from Mammoth Lakes link to the Pacific Crest Trail and the John Muir Trail.
Experience Water Adventure
Whether you’re paddling a kayak or stand-up paddleboard or motoring a pontoon boat or small fishing boat, getting out on the water offers a unique perspective and is an excellent way to observe waterfowl, fish, and other wildlife. The scenery is incomparable, with sweeping views of the surrounding mountains and distinctive geological features.
Delight in the sight of Carson Peak from June Lake, or Mammoth Mountain from Lake Mary. See how many of the 300 species of birds who frequent Mono Lake you can spot. Many visitors have even been thrilled to spot eagles and black bears during their boating adventures. (IANS)