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Though, the official language of India is Hindi. But, Indians all across the world speak Hindustani, and merely Hindi.
Well, interestingly, the language which Indians speak is Hindustani, which is a mixture of Hindi and Urdu languages. Today, ancestors of Hindustani language are known as Hindui, Hindavi, Zaban-e-Hind, Zaban-e-Hindustan, Hindustan ki boli, Rekhta, and even Hindi.
At the same time, various dialects of Hindustani came into being, like for southern India, the language came to be Zaban-e-Dakhani; for Gujarat, it became Zaban-e-Gujari; and for Delhi, the language became Zaban-e-Dehlavi or Urdu.
Well, in basic terms, Hindustani is a pluricentric language with two standardised registers, namely, Modern Standard Hindi and Modern Standard Urdu.
Mahatma Gandhi was the first person to use Hindustani language as as a "unifying language" or "fusion language". Moreover, the language also became an expression of Indian national unity during the Indian Independence Movement.
It must be noted well that when the Mughal conquests grew in the Indian subcontinent, Hindustani language spread like wildfire. This, again, was a result of contact between Hindu and Muslim cultures which further gave birth to Ganga-Jamuni Tehzeeb, which is still preached.
But, when British rule started in India, the use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, and was replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu'. This, perhaps, could be a reason why division occurred in Hindustani Language, giving birth to two languages– Hindi and Urdu.
So, now we see why we say “chaand" and not “chandrama", “zindagi" and not “jeevan”, and also, “mohobbat" and not “prem"! Well, this is because we unknowingly speak Hindustani and not Hindi or Urdu.
Keywords: Hindustani Language, Hindi-Urdu language, language of India.
By- Ольга Лесная
No doubt, most of us adore traveling, but only a few moves to another country for an extended stay. And the reason is clear: this is a decision that can change your life forever. Of course, it's natural to doubt if studying abroad is worth it. So, we've analyzed the changes education in another country can bring to your life – all of them are equally exciting!
Broader Social Network
Whichever country or city you choose to study in, you will definitely get to know people of various nationalities, cultures, and religions. Modern universities strive for multiculturalism and often host international parties and cool events. Imagine how amazing it would be to spend time with peers from all over the world!
However, due to the busy schedule, you may not have as much time for meetings and social life as desired. But there's no need to worry, as there's a great way to keep up with everything.
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Outsourcing your homework assignments to WritePaper makes your life easier for many reasons. First, you will stop stressing over upcoming deadlines since all your tasks will be completed on time. Second, your academic performance will improve as writers follow all of your requirements. And most importantly, you will find the perfect balance between study and rest.
Better Positions On A Labor Market
Let's face it, in our demanding world, work experience is increasingly more important than a university degree. And studying abroad improves your chances to get an internship in a foreign company. Surely your future employer will be delighted to see such a line in your resume. Universities perfectly understand how this works, and therefore help students to get hired in partner companies. The better the college, the more extensive its connections, and the more opportunities are available to students.
Obviously, more and more employers look for candidates with international experience who know foreign languages and respect cultural differences. And employees who received diplomas abroad definitely stepped out of their comfort zone. Thus, they are more flexible and open to new challenges.
Your Personality Is Being Shaped
A positive attitude towards life, adaptability, willingness to learn and grow are only a fraction of the qualities you will develop.
People who have lived and studied abroad tend to work better in teams and are more apt to establish professional connections with different people. In addition, they are of great value for employers who aim at expanding business and strengthening international relations. All this raises your chances in the job market.
Discovering New Culture
A different culture, a different worldview, a different mentality - all these delights and frighten us at the same time. In fact, intercultural communication is becoming a vital skill as the world is becoming more globalized. Studying abroad, you will certainly immerse yourself in the mentality, culture, and language of a new country, and look at things from a different angle.
Moreover, you will also have a chance to represent your own country, its traditions, and values.
Autonomy and Independence
For many, moving to study abroad is the first time really being on their own. While some peers continue to live with their parents or get money from them, international students do plenty of things on their own: from paying bills to planning a budget, and more. Living abroad, you learn a new language, navigate a new city, monitor your schedule, and take care of chores, too.
Nothing broadens your outlook like fresh experiences and unexpected situations. And when you're abroad, they occur on a regular basis. Getting lost, meeting new people, and addressing numerous issues, you will definitely get out of your comfort zone.
Bus tours, low-cost airlines, cozy hostels, student discounts - there are many ways to see the world even on a tight budget.
For example, if you are studying in France, you can easily get to different parts of Europe, including London, Barcelona, and Rome. You will learn how to navigate international airports, identify the best local cafes, and find outstanding locations in the world's top destinations.
When you are miles away from home, spontaneity and a spirit of adventure will follow you everywhere. Be open to brilliant impressions and acquaintances – after all, these memories will stay with you forever.
When you are miles away from home, spontaneity and a spirit of adventure will follow you everywhereUnsplash
Career And Visa Support
If you plan to go on living in the country you studied in – here's good news. Foreign university graduates are usually given some time, from several months to a year, to find a permanent job.
Also, there are special agencies in universities that help international students with visa issues and job search. They can consult you on how to write a resume, get prepared for an interview, and so on. Thus, educational institutions usually help learners with their stay and future growth.
Learning a New Language
Whether it's Italian, French, or Swedish, why not challenge yourself and master a new language?
You can also take courses taught by qualified native speakers. Or you can join a university speaking club and try to chat with local friends in their native language. This way, you'll speed up the process and contribute to your understanding of the local culture.
Perhaps it is difficult to be confident when you've just graduated from high school and have no clue what to do. However, studying at the university, especially abroad, you see what you are capable of and what difficulties you can overcome. Moreover, you will learn to rely on yourself, which means you will feel grounded. And no matter what happens, you will handle everything.
Studying abroad is not only about receiving a diploma from a foreign university. In fact, it is a very demanding path that you definitely cannot take in your home country. Perhaps all of the points mentioned above can be combined into one simple truth. Getting to know another culture, you also get to know yourself, your strengths and weaknesses. And this is the main step towards self-development, which is surely what we all strive for.
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It is indeed good news that the book showcasing the wisdom of India in the eyes of Western intellectuals is getting due recognition and appreciation from other states and abroad. After Karnataka and Punjab, the Government of Assam has recently consented to translate the research-based book by Shillong-based author - Shri Salil Gewali titled "Great Minds on India". The Chief Minister of Assam - Shri Himanta Biswa Sarma was amazed to know that so many top western scientists and philosophers have drawn a considerable amount of inspiration from ancient scriptures of India, particularly in the studies of modern physics, linguistic and astronomy. In the recent meeting with the author, the Chief Minister had highly appreciated Gewali's book and promised to read it thoroughly. Gewali's book was also approved for translation in the year 2020 by the former Chief Minister – Shri Sarbananda Sonowal but due to COVID-19, the translation work was delayed.
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Furthermore, the two scholars from Canada --- Dr Hema Murty -- Air Space Engineer at the University of Toronto, and Dr. Harsh H Thakkar of Sheridan College of Brampton, Ontario have sought permission from Mr. Gewali for the translation of 'Great Minds on India' into the Sanskrit language. After the translation, the Sanskrit edition will be published and circulated and utilized by Samskrita Bharati of Canada, besides its other branches in India, USA and UK. Gewali says that the book that has been praised by countless scholars and publication by the Government of Karnataka and Punjab has so far been translated into thirteen languages, including German.
'Great Minds of India' by Salil Gewali is an impressive compact book discussing the power that Indian ancient wisdomFile
A university scholar from Winchester, United Kingdom - Ms. Janet Murphy remarks:
" 'Great Minds of India' by Salil Gewali is an impressive compact book discussing the power that Indian ancient wisdom, thought and way of life had an impact on western minds, especially those who are of great historical significance, such as Voltaire, Albert Einstein, Ralph Emerson, Julius Robert Oppenheimer, Mark Twain, HG Wells et al. It is hoped all right-thinking scholars will find Gewali's work extremely applaudable."
Like Konkani, Tulu is a language that is spoken in parts of Karnataka and Kerala. The people who speak this language are called Tuluvas, and in the southernmost region, they are known as Thigalayas. Among many dialects that Karnataka and Kerala are known for, Tulu makes up for a large part of the linguistic population, but still remains a linguistic minority because it has not been included in the Constitution's 8th schedule.
Tulu is believed to be one of the most linguistically developed languages among scholars. It does not have a script, like Konkani, as native speakers make do with Kannada and Malayalam scripts. The differences in sound and form are identifiable only to those who form what is known as Tulu Nadu.
An unofficial state within states, Tulu Nadu consists of Mangaluru, Udupi and parts of Kasargod. In these regions, the Tulu population is greater then surrounding areas where the language is spoken. When India was divided into states post partition, the Tuluvas asked for a separate state for themselves, but this was not granted keeping in mind the even greater Kannada speaking population who formed Karnataka.
Tulu is a language that borrows the script of Malayalam and Kannada Image credit: wikimedia commons
Tulu, as a language, remains a minority because it never received royal patronage. Krishnadevaraya, a renowned king of the Vijayanagar Kingdom, did not patronise this language even though it was his own mother tongue. He chose to laud poetry in Telugu instead, which affected the Tuluva community immensely in gaining prominence in their own land.
Even today, this community is working hard to be recognised as a population larger than they are considered to be. Many poets, authors, and literary figures from the community have contributed to Kannada literature, hoping to revive the knowledge and acknowledgement of Tulu.
Keywords: Tulu, Kannada, Karnataka, Tulu Nadu, Language