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By Aakash Sinha
India, the country of traditions and rituals has a unique place in the world. Its culture and diversity doesn’t have any replica on this Earth. New Year day is celebrated on 1st January all over the world. But, in India people also celebrate New Year day on the basis of the calendar ( Solar and Lunar) they follow. Ugadi, the New Year day for Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh is celebrated with full enthusiasm and traditions.
It is referred as Gudipadawa in Maharashtra.
Origin of Ugadi
The word “Ugadi” has originated from a Sanskrit word “Yugadi”. ‘Yug’ means ‘age’ and ‘adi’ means ‘beginning’, so it signifies “the beginning of the new age”. This festival comes every year in the month of March or April. The date is not fixed as it depends on the position of sun and moon (Indian calendar is based on position of sun and moon).
Religious belief associated with Ugadi
According to Hindu mythology, Lord Brahma started the creation of the universe on the same day of Ugadi or Chaitra suddha padhyami (first day of the bright half of the Indian month of Chaitra).
It is said that Lord Brahma created the days, weeks, month, year in order to count time and then created all other elements on the planet (air, water etc.).
Hindu mythology states that, “If we are happy on Ugadi we will remain happy whole year”. So, people try to be the happiest on this day.
Significance of Ugadi
- Ugadi signifies the change in the lunar orbit as well as the beginning of new Hindu lunar calendar.The trees have new green leaves. New flowers are seen everywhere. The season of spring is accompanied with joy and pleasure of Ugadi.
- “Vasanta Navratri” begins on this day and concludes on the ninth day with another auspicious day “Ramnavmi”.
- Different Mantras are chanted and predictions are made for the coming year.Panchanga Shravanam – hearing of Panchanga (a Hindu calendar based on planetary motion) is done by the priests in temples.
- It is believed that the benefits to the listener as well as the reader, are equivalent to having a dip in the holy river Ganges.
Preparations and Celebrations for Ugadi
The day starts with cleaning and the house doors are decorated with mango leaves and flowers. Oil-bath is a must for everybody. Rich or poor, all should wear new clothes. There is an interesting story behind the practice of decorating with mango leaves.
Subramanya and Ganesha, the sons of Lord Shiva and Parvati loved eating mangoes. Kartik asked people to bind leaves of mango tree to the doors in order to indicate a good yield.
After offering prayers to Sun, Vepapoota Pachadi (Neem Flower Pickle) is eaten on an empty stomach. It tastes sweet, hot as well as sour. People perform the ritualistic worship to God invoking his blessings before they start off with the New Year.
Rituals and Traditions followed on Ugadi
This festival is has a lot of rituals to follow. According to the information available on a state website,some of the common rituals are:
- Reflection in Ghee: Watching one’s reflection in a bowl of molten ghee.
- Enne (Oil) Shastra: Elderly women of the family apply kumkum (sindoor) to the younger members and perform evening prayers.
- Abhyang: Oil bath is taken by all family members. Also, the idols of God are bathed with oil.
- New Dresses: Everyone should wear new clothes.
- Offering flowers: Mango leaves and neem flowers are offered to God to make the day auspicious. Also, doors are decorated using these.
- Worship: People worship God involving steps of Abhisheka, Alankara, Naivedya and Mangalarathi.
- Panchanga Pooje: After worshipping God, Panchanga for the New Year is worshipped.
- Bevu Bella: A seet, sour and bitter dish prepared on this day.
- Oota: Offering meals to God and then eating it as Prasada or Oota.
- Visiting temples: Visiting temples and seeking blessings of the Almighty.
Food prepared on Ugadi
Bevu Bella is the main item prepared at every house on this day. It is a paste of jaggery, neem, tamarind juice and raw mango. The importance of this dish is that it denotes all tastes of life.
The sweet, sour and bitter taste of Bevu Bella reminds us that, “Life is a mixture of sadness and happiness”. We should face it in all forms.
Apart from Bevu-Bella, several south Indian dishes are prepared to mark this auspicious day.
A happier day means a happy year ahead. So goes the belief.
Aakash is pursuing B.E , Electrical and Electronics Engineering from Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology, Bangalore.
High drama was witnessed in Kanpur Dehat for over an hour when a man, upset over his wife's alleged affair with a local man, climbed the tower with his children and threatened to commit suicide. The incident took place on Monday near Gandhi Nagar in Akbarpur, when the man threatened to commit suicide after throwing his kids down from a height of nearly 40-feet. Chaos prevailed around the area and the locals informed the police that rushed to the spot.
After about half-an-hour of convincing, the police managed to bring him and his children down. The man told the police that his wife's affair was going on with his neighbor. He had complained to the police, but no action was taken. Police said that as per the man, his wife had developed an illicit relationship with a man, living nearby their house. "As per the man, in his absence, his neighbor visited his house often. He said that he had reprimanded his neighbor many times, but to no avail," said the police.
The man had complained to the police, but no action was taken. | Pixabay
The man had also lodged a complaint with the police but no action was taken. On the other hand, Akbarpur police said that on the basis of the complaint, action for breach of peace has been taken against the neighbor accused of luring his wife. Circle officer (CO) Akbarpur Arun Kumar said that the police are trying to sort out the issue. "Whatever action is appropriate will be taken," the official added. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh, man, wife, alleged, affair, children, India, police, neighbor, complaint, suicide, accuse, drama.)
The US forces continued their bombardment of buildings and institutions in Syria's northeastern Hasakah province, as part of their alleged manhunt of Islamic State (IS) fugitives, state news agency SANA reported. The US forces are shelling buildings and public institutions on Tuesday in the vicinity of the Sina'a prison in the Gweiran neighborhood in Hasakah "on the pretext of hunting down IS militants who fled the prison," said SANA.
The Syrian Foreign Ministry has slammed the US airstrikes as civilian casualties have been reported. | Wikimedia Commons
The shelling came in tandem with waves of raids by the Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) to homes in the surrounding areas, rounding up many civilians and taking them to unknown locations, the state news agency added. On January 20, IS inmates inside the Sina'a prison, which is controlled by the SDF, started a riot that was coordinated with IS militants from outside, who detonated the prison's gates with two booby-trapped vehicles, succeeding to free some prisoners.
The incident triggered clashes between IS and the SDF as well as US airstrikes on the areas, where the IS fugitives could have sought shelter in, Xinhua news agency reported. The clashes and airstrikes are still ongoing as the SDF has so far failed to contain the situation and storm the prison. The Syrian Foreign Ministry has slammed the US airstrikes as civilian casualties have been reported. Hasakah province is largely controlled by the US-backed SDF, while certain areas, particularly in the city of Qamishli, are still under the control of the Syrian government. (IANS/ MBI)
(Keywords: US forces, shelling, bombarding, syria, islamic state, civilian casualties, qamishli, tandem, syrian democratic forces)
The circulating avian influenza outbreaks, including in India, do not seem to pose the 'high' risk but surveillance and biosecurity measures are necessary to reduce spillover risk between poultry and wild birds, a UN-backed scientific task force said. Throughout the past autumn and current winter in the northern hemisphere, multiple avian influenza outbreaks, caused predominantly by the H5N1 HPAI virus, plus other subtypes, including H5N8, have occurred in India, the UK, the Netherlands and Israel with the ever recorded mortality of the Svalbard barnacle geese in Solway Coast.
The Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds, co-convened by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) and the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), on Monday recommended that surveillance and biosecurity measures are reinforced to reduce spillover risk between poultry and wild birds. The Task Force has convened and produced recommendations and guidance for authorities and managers of countries affected or at risk. Wild birds, including globally threatened species, are victims of HPAI viruses causing avian influenza. Affected sites also include areas of international relevance for conservation such as protected wetlands.
More than 2,400 migratory water birds died in the Pong wetlands in Himachal last year because of avian influenza. | Unsplash
It is essential that authorities with responsibility for animal health apply the One Health approach for communicating and addressing avian influenza. That means recognising the health of humans, domestic and wild animals, plants, and the wider environment and acting with a coordinated and unified approach. The Task Force reminds authorities of their international obligations to ensure their response to the pathogenic virus does not include the culling of wild birds, nor actions that would cause damage to natural ecosystems, especially wetlands.
Ruth Cromie, who coordinated the work of the Task Force and the production of the statement, said: "Avian influenza represents a One Health issue threatening health across the board. The highly pathogenic viruses are still relatively new in wild birds and this winter's high levels of mortality remind us of their vulnerability and that working to promote healthy wildlife benefits us all." H5N1 is currently the avian influenza lineage most found in Africa and Eurasia in both poultry and wild birds. The wide range of wild birds affected include wildfowl, waders, gulls, cranes, grebes, herons, pelicans, gamebirds, corvids and raptors (diurnal and nocturnal), in addition to sporadic cases in mammals such as red fox (Vulpes vulpes), Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and harbor Phoca vitulina and grey seal Halichoerus grypus.
Consider occupational exposure, e.g. those working on poultry culling operations. | Unsplash
In terms of human health, the currently circulating H5N1 HPAI viruses do not seem to pose the same zoonotic risk as the 'original' Asian lineage H5N1 (clade 2.2 and their derivatives plus clade 126.96.36.199b H5N6 viruses currently in China). In general, the risk can be considered low, recognising that some agencies now consider occupational exposure, e.g. those working on poultry culling operations, as low or moderate. In India, several instances of bird flu were reported in 2021. More than 2,400 migratory water birds, and almost half of them being endangered bar-headed goose, died in the Pong wetlands in Himachal Pradesh last year and that avian influenza (H5N1) was the cause.
Besides the bar-headed goose, the other species that died were the shoveler, the river tern, the pochard and the common teal. An 11-year-old boy died at All India Institute of Medical Sciences in Delhi last year due to avian influenza, country's first fatality. India reported the first outbreak of avian influenza in 2006. RSPB Scotland is calling for an emergency local moratorium restricting shooting on the Solway for the rest of the wildfowling season. It calls for urgent action to reduce the devastating impacts of avian influenza. New statistics from the most recent counts show that the UK is this winter experiencing the worst outbreak of this deadly disease on record, with migratory geese which 'over winter' on the Solway being the hardest hit.
According to RSPB Scotland, the latest population counts of the Svalbard barnacle goose show a drop in numbers from 43,703 in November last year to 27,133 in this month's count. This represents a decline of 38 per cent in the Svalbard breeding population of this species from winter 2020-21. CMS Executive Secretary Amy Fraenkel said: "Through late 2021 and early 2022 there have been numerous outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, with severe impacts on migratory birds. "The CMS Secretariat responded by convening the Scientific Task Force on Avian Influenza and Wild Birds together with the FAO. We are pleased to share its advice and key recommendations for countries affected or at risk, and look forward to continuing our collaborative work to minimize risks to humans, poultry and wild populations of migratory birds." (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : avian, influenza, surveillance, United Nation, scientists, breeding, population, birds, affected, countries, poultry, migratory, health, issue, virus, responsibility, international, ecosystem.)