Sunday October 21, 2018

The outbreak of Leptospirosis with monsoon: Symptoms and precautions

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monsoon water logging

Dr. J.K. Bhutani

Come monsoons and the outbreaks of Leptospirosis, a zoonotic disease are reported from coastal districts Maharashtra.
Leptospirosis is primarily a contagious disease of animals, occasionally infecting humans. It is caused by pathogenic Spirochete of the genus Leptospira, a type of bacteria that traditionally consist of two species L. interrogans and L. biflexa.

How does it spread?

The domestic animals carry the microorganisms and therefore act as carriers of the leptospires. Together the rodents and the cattle excrete large number of organisms in their urine and thus are responsible for the contamination of large and small water bodies.

In monsoons the water logged areas force the rodent population to abandon their burrows and contaminate the stagnant water by their urine. The farmers and agricultural labourers working in the water logged contaminated fields catch the infection if they move in with abraded or cut skin.

Clinical Symptoms of Leptosirosis

The common symptoms are: fever, muscle pains, conjunctival haemorrhage, headache, pulmonary and renal hemorrhagic complications.

The patients are often misdiagnosed as malaria, dengue hemorrhagic fever, viral hepatitis etc. The clinical suspicion must be reported to the medical specialist soon for proper diagnosis with the laboratory aids.

Weil’s syndrome, is the more severe form of leptospirosis having more severe course with jaundice, oliguria and haemorrhagic complications

How to prevent the outbreak?

Elimination of water logging, ensuring proper drainage of rainwater and control of the rodents will prevent the outbreak of leptospirosis. These measures are typically taken by the civic bodies but at individual level the following measures will be of help:

  1. Do not move in stagnant water without proper rain boots and covered skin especially if you have cut or abraded skin.
  1. Wash the exposed skin immediately after coming from the water soaked area.
  1. On doctor’s recommendation, one may take antibiotic Doxycycline 200 milligram once a week for the period of 6-8 weeks. This is prophylactic (preventive) in nature. On the same line, doxycycline may be given to agricultural workers (example: paddy field workers, canal cleaning workers in endemic areas) from where large number of cases have been reported like in Mumbai, now a days.

JK1

Dr J.K. Bhutani MD is a protagonist of preventive and promotive health care based on austere biology and facilitating self healing powers of human organism.
You can follow him at https://twitter.com/drjkbhutani

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India Continues Engaging With USA Over H-1B Passport Issue

India is closely engaged with the US administration as well as the US Congress on this matter.

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As Trump proposes changes in H1-B visa, India continues to engage with US

India is continuing to engage with the US over the H-1B visa, largely availed of by Indian IT companies, after the Trump administration proposed changes to the programme, a senior official said on Thursday.

“It is a very important topic for us and that is the reason why we have time and again at various levels, we have taken up this matter with the US side,” External Affairs Ministry spokesperson Raveesh Kumar said in response to queries by journalists here.

Kumar said that most recently, the issue was raised during the first ever India-US 2+2 Ministerial Meeting held here last month that was attended by External Affairs Minister Sushma Swaraj, Defence Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Defence Secretary Jim Mattis.

On Wednesday, the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) said that the US Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) plans to come out with its new proposal by January 2019.

India n Passport
It will also “revise the definition” of employment and employer-employee relationship to “better protect” US workers and wages Flickr

The DHS said it was also proposing to remove from its regulations certain H-4 spouses of H-1B non-immigrants as a class of aliens eligible for employment authorisation.

The move to end the rule could have an impact on more than 70,000 H-4 visa holders, who have work permits.

The H-4 visas are issued by the USCIS to immediate family members (spouse and children under 21 years of age) of the holders of H-1B visa.

The DHS said it will propose to revise the definition of speciality occupation to increase focus on obtaining the best and the brightest foreign nationals via the H-1B programme.

It will also “revise the definition” of employment and employer-employee relationship to “better protect” US workers and wages, the DHS said.

Donald Trump, India
President Donald Trump speaks about immigration alongside family members affected by crimes committed by undocumented immigrants, at the South Court Auditorium on the White House complex, June 22, 2018, in Washington, VOA

In his remarks on Thursday, Kumar said that India is closely engaged with the US administration as well as the US Congress on this matter.

Stating that there are certain bills which have been introduced, he, however, said that “it is important to note that none of these bills have been passed so far”.

“When we have engaged with the US, we have emphasised that our partnership which we have in the digital sphere have been mutually beneficial,” the spokesperson said.

Also Read: USA And Other Countries Pledge To Eradicate Illegal Wildlife Trade

“We have highlighted the role which has been played by the highly skilled Indian professionals who have actually contributed to the growth and development of the US economy,” he stated.

“And also they have helped the US to maintain a competitive edge in the world towards innovation and science and technology.” (IANS)