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By Nithin Sridhar
The Modi government has recently taken a decision to exempt persecuted minority refugees from Pakistan and Bangladesh from relevant provisions that govern their entry and stay in India. These provisions include rules made under the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 and the Foreigners Act, 1946.
The exemption ordered by the government will allow the persecuted refugees to stay in India even after the expiry of their Visa. This will help minority refugees belonging to Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Sikh, Parsi, and Christian community who are fleeing Pakistan and Bangladesh because of religious persecution.
The immense relief that the recent decision may provide to these persecuted refugees can only be understood by looking at the magnitude of religious persecution that continues to take place in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
Status of Minorities in Pakistan
The Hindu population in Pakistan stood at roughly 15% after partition in 1947 and got reduced to just 2% by 1951. In 1998, the Hindu share stood at 1.6%. Hence, within four years between 1947 and 1951, most of the Hindus in Pakistan either migrated to India or were killed in the genocide that followed the partition.
The tiny portion of Hindu population that survived the genocide has continued to face persecution and harassment especially after Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq came to power in Pakistan. Hindus are not the only minorities who have faced persecution. Christians in Pakistan have also faced a similar discrimination and harassment.
Dr. Iftikhar H. Malik in his ‘Religious Minorities in Pakistan’ report states: “Physical attacks, social stigmatization, psychological insecurity, forced conversions, and continued institutional degradation characterise the position of religious minorities in Pakistan.”
He further says that religious hatred is also used to forcefully acquire properties belonging to minorities such as properties housing temples, churches etc.
He adds: “Aside from religious feuds and socio-cultural/economic deprivation, the official policies of appeasement and the emphasis on religious uniformity have allocated second or even third-class citizenship to millions of Pakistanis.”
Education is another sector that is hostile to the minorities. The curriculum taught in not only the madrassas but also in public schools promotes hostility towards non-Muslims. The blasphemy law is another tool that has been used to target non-Muslims.
Many churches and temples have also been attacked and destroyed. In one incident, after torn pages of Quran were strewn around, 13 churches and 700 households were destroyed by a 10,000 strong Muslim mob.
In his 2009 article, Amir Mir says, “Of the 300 Hindu temples that Pakistan inherited in 1947 at the time of partition, hardly three dozen have managed to survive, many of whom are in ruins and are set to disappear with the passage of time if due attention is not paid to their maintenance.”
He further points out that, at least 200 Hindu temples were destroyed in Pakistan after the unused Babri Masjid was razed in India.
He sums up the condition of Hindus in Pakistan thus: “Together with the apathy of the general public, the Hindus of Pakistan remain a forgotten and voiceless people who have to live a low-profile existence and have to put up with many insults to their honor and dignity, without any safeguard. The Pakistani authorities rarely intervene to help their Hindu nationals, despite the fact that there are frequent reports of the kidnapping of Hindu women and children and looting of Hindu property, besides other forms of discrimination and persecution.”
Regarding the condition of Christians in Pakistan, a report by Jinnah Institute describes them as being “on the frontline of the persecution and violence against minority communities. From interviews conducted with Christians from a variety of professions and ages, it is clear that many feel they are treated as second-class citizens and discriminated against in all aspects of life.”
Therefore, there is a systematic and persistent persecution of various religious minorities in Pakistan. Apart from violence, kidnapping, and forceful marriages of minority girls, minorities in Pakistan are also subjected to legal discrimination, economic exploitation, and social prejudice.
Status of Minorities in Bangladesh
The condition of minorities in Bangladesh is no better. Before Bangladesh was born in 1971, it was called “East Pakistan.”
In the years that followed the formation of India and Pakistan, East Pakistan faced complete discrimination from its western counterpart. As a result, there was a rebellion in East Pakistan against its western masters.
The Pakistani army, which had been under the control of West Pakistan, tried to crush the rebellion by adopting a genocidal campaign against the ethnic Bengalis.
Thousands of Hindu Bengalis were killed and a large number of ethnic Bengalis, most of whom were Hindus were forced to flee from East Pakistan. One report puts the number of ethnic Bengalis who fled to India at 10 million.
But, the ethnic cleansing of Hindus from Bangladesh was not limited to 1971. Instead, it had been going on for last seven decades. The Hindu population in Bangladesh area in 1947 was around 31% which got reduced to around 19% by 1961, to around 14% by 1974 and currently stands at around 9%.
According to an estimate by Professor Abul Barkat, around 8.1 million Hindus went missing from Bangladesh from 1964 to 2000– around 600 Hindus per day. A large portion of this missing population has invariably come to India as persecuted refugees.
The minorities in Bangladesh, especially the Hindus, face large-scale discrimination and persecution. The properties of the minorities are grabbed, their places of worship are razed and various forms of violence and sexual exploitation are imposed on them.
Md. Rajib Hasnat Shakil in his report on the persecution of minorities in Bangladesh says: “An overwhelming 98.68% of the rape victims are minority, and rapists happen to be from the cadres of the ruling parties. Nearly 200 Hindu women were gang raped in Char Fashion, Bhola, in one night at a single spot. The police do not allow the minorities to press charges against the rapists, and if they insist, they are given a run around for a few days so the evidence of rape disappears, and then, the police officers themselves persecute them.”
According to a 2014 human rights report, at least 1699 temples have been destroyed in Bangladesh during 2013 and 2014. The recent killings of the atheist bloggers are well-known. But, what is not well known is that around 302 minorities have been killed and another 2900 have been physically assaulted during 2013 and 2014. Also, around 5000 families have been displaced from their lands during the same period.
These clearly depict a very disturbing picture of the condition of minorities in Bangladesh. They face persecution and discrimination in all aspects of life- political, economic, social, and religious. They receive support neither from the government nor from the society.
In the face of such life-threatening situations many minorities from both Pakistan and Bangladesh are forced to flee to India with the hope of survival and a better life. Many Hindus from Pakistan have come to India on a tourist visa but have refused to go back. According to one estimate, there are around two lakh Hindu and Sikh refugees from Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan who are living in India.
Therefore, the present decision by the Modi government will provide relief to large number of Hindus, Sikhs, Christians, and other persecuted minorities who have fled from Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is a humanitarian step taken in the right direction and the government must be congratulated for it.
By Prerana Agarwal Saxena
In all the wedding excitement, it's easy to overlook the impact a wedding has on the environment. While everyone is making their big fat Indian wedding dreams come true, they are also adding their carbon footprint and undue energy consumption. Modern couples are now looking for ways to have a wedding with a sustainably conscious mindset. It's become about incorporating less waste, locally sourced and seasonal food, natural materials over the use of plastic. Mindful wedding planning and decor includes the use of recycled paper and goods along with eco-friendly venue needs. Check out this quick guide to achieve a sustainably conscious wedding without compromising on luxury:
Choose locally sourced material to uplift artisans
Sustainable can be luxurious too, incorporate some native flavour into the decor and theme. With the use of locally sourced materials and local artisans coming into play, the wedding instantly becomes sustainable. Include the work of local vendors ensure minimal packaging requirements, thus saving on unnecessary plastic and lamination. It also decreases the need for transporting elements from other cities and hence lowers the carbon footprint. For instance, at one of our weddings, we made use of sand art for a setup in Jodhpur. This helped promote local work while also being environmentally friendly with zero wastage of other materials. In another instance from Rajasthan, the traditional glass-blown technique was used to build decor items while giving a cultural touch to the destination wedding.
Sustainable can be luxurious too, incorporate some native flavour into the decor and theme. | Photo by Jason Coudriet on Unsplash
Say yes to recycling
One should be mindful and avoid the use of plastic and other non-recyclable materials in decor wherever possible. It can be a small step such as making a conscious switch from plastic water bottles to copper jugs or glass bottles. Also use artificial floral decor thus minimising the wastage produced from real flowers. This recyclable decor is then donated to various NGOs, further ensuring sustainable use of resources. Such steps, however small they might be, keep the environment free from the release of any additional carbon footprint.
One should be mindful and avoid the use of plastic and other non-recyclable materials in decor wherever possible. | Photo by Ravin Rau on Unsplash
Go for zero-waste wedding decor
Make use of fabric as it enhances the elegance of the wedding while being sustainable. Include vibrant colours apt to the theme of the wedding and bring in bright sprightliness with breathable fabrics. Ensure to include LED lights for lighting. They can be incorporated as string lights or be used on passageways with innovative decor items. They also help conserve energy and bring in soulful energy for nighttime decor. Choose virtual invitations, keeping up with the digital times. Make a conscious choice of plated dinner menus rather than a buffet as they allow less wastage of food and ensure enough food for guests in attendance.
LEDs can be incorporated as string lights or be used on passageways with innovative decor items. | Photo by Annie Spratt on Unsplash
Include Sustainable Gifting
Gift sustainable wedding favours -- gifts that grow. Offering a plant or a succulent, is a great idea. One can also gift recycled organic fabrics and cutlery or zero-waste kitchen and bathroom essentials to use in their homes as some distinct gifting options.
Gift sustainable wedding favours -- gifts that grow. | Photo by Kira auf der Heide on Unsplash
Acting in the best interest of the environment and the society, Theme Weavers Designs has started a social cause, Weaving Hope, where a part of their earnings along with food and decor are donated to social communities. Royal Rendezvous, is an event started by us to put India on the Global Map, inviting international wedding planners to India to experience the rich culture and heritage, also employing and displaying the work of local artisans to this international audience.
By applying the values of sustainability, you can reduce the energy consumed and the resources used as much as possible. Go ahead and have a luxurious zero-waste wedding and navigate into the world of green living! (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Luxurious , Gift, sustainable, wedding favours, gifts that grow. Gifting, recycling, locally sourced, material. zero-waste
The Tamil Nadu health department has administered 16,43,879 lakh doses of vaccine in the second mega vaccination camp organised by it. The state public health department in a statement on Sunday said that this has taken the total vaccination to one crore since the beginning of September till date. The vaccination was administered from 7 a.m. till 7 p.m. and the compiled data was made available late at night.
The health department officials also said that as the state has almost exhausted its quota of vaccines, there would not be any vaccines on Monday. Regular vaccination will resume after the vaccine supplies arrive from New Delhi, officials said. The state health department had expected to vaccinate 15 lakh people on Sunday in 18,824 centres spread across primary health centres, anganwadis, noon meal centres, government hospitals, schools and some auditoriums.
The health department officials also said that as the state has almost exhausted its quota of vaccines, there would not be any vaccines on Monday. | Photo by Mat Napo on Unsplash
Of the 16,43,879 people who were inoculated, a total of 10,85,097 received their first dose and 5,58,782 their second dose of vaccine, the statement said, A total of 9,66,568 people in the age group of 18-44 were vaccinated on Sunday and vaccines were administered on 5,02,578 people aged between 45- 59 in the mega vaccine camps.
State health minister Ma Subramanian, who inaugurated the vaccination at Pollachi, also visited the centres in six districts -- Coimbatore, Erode, Namakkal, Tiruppur, Dharmapuri and Salem. The state government, according to the health minister, is to receive the next allotment of vaccines on September 21. Minister while speaking to IANS said, "We will be receiving the next allotment of vaccines on September 21 itself and we will resume vaccinations immediately. The state has already touched one crore vaccine-mark in the month of September till date." (IANS/MBI)
Keywords: COVID, vaccine, vaccination camp, Tamil Nadu, India, vaccinated, mega camp
Festivals are just around the corner and while you brainstorm about OOTDs (outfit of the day), don't forget the right makeup. Hanisha Kapoor, COO, ArchiesBeauty.com shares makeup trends experimented by these Bollywood divas throughout 2021 for inspiration. While some stuck to the classics, others mixed it up... take a look:
The Classic Red Lip
We don't see a future where classic red lips go out of fashion. The right way to achieve this celebrity look is to focus on accentuating your lips and keeping the rest of the face minimal. Give your lips a good scrub to plump them, moisturize and follow it up with a red lip liner to define the shape of your lips. Now go on with the perfect shade of red and finish your look with a slick of eyeliner, minimal concealer, and foundation.
We don't see a future where classic red lips go out of fashion. | Photo by Ina Garbé on Unsplash
No Makeup Look
Deepika Padukon is the perfect example of a no-makeup look. This natural beauty does a wonderful job of achieving the minimal soft look by softly cover any dark spots or blemishes and highlighting features she's most proud of. To achieve this start with concealer and use small dots to brighten your darker areas like under eye, corner of the nose or upper lip, and any visible spots, and set it up with loose powder. Apply a soft pink lipstick, light blush, and mascara.
Deepika Padukon is the perfect example of a no-makeup look | Wikimedia Commons
This look shouts pink. When it comes to rosy looks, Janhavi Kapoor does a phenomenal job. Everyone should try a rosy look once in a while. As we are focusing on only one shade, this look is pretty easy to achieve. Bring out your favourite pink lipstick, favourite pink blush, and a matching shade of eye shadow. Start with the base - concealer, and foundation and set it up with loose powder. Follow it up with eyeshadow, lipstick, and blush. Remember to draw a line by not using any pink mascara, eyeliner, or a bold shade of lipstick, as this is meant to be soft on the eyes.
When it comes to rosy looks, Janhavi Kapoor does a phenomenal job. | Wikimedia Commons
Glass Skin Makeup
The glass skin makeup is inspired by Korean skincare. This look is slightly complex with an equal focus on skin before makeup, so slather on those moisturizing serums and creams to prep your skin first. Start with a highlighting primer, keep your foundation and concealer minimal to avoid looking cakey. Follow it up with soft blush & nude lips and lots and lots of highlighter. Use the highlighter on the main points of your face, like upper cheekbones, the centre of the forehead, the tip of the nose, cupid bone, and chin. If you are feeling a bit extra, don't hesitate to put some on your shoulders and collar bones. This celebrity makeup look makes your skin glow without the need for a spotlight.
The glass skin makeup is inspired by Korean skincare. | Photo by 邱 严 on Unsplash
Pop It Up
Put a zing to your party look with the pop of funky colour. This look is meant to get you in the mood of partying all night. This works with your eye makeup while keeping the rest of the face minimal. Start with the base - concealer, apply a bit extra on your eyelids to make the colour pop. Don't mind going the extra mile and colour blocking your eyes with complementary colours on eyelids and under the eye. Apply nude lipstick and a soft blush to balance your look.
This look is meant to get you in the mood of partying all night. | Pixabay
(Article originally published by N. Lothungbeni Humtsoe) (IANS/ MBI)
Keywords: Celebrity, makeup, Deepika, Jhanavi, Korean, Red Lipstick, Glass Makeup, Pop makeup