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Broadly there are four types of skin and to choose the best sunscreen it's very important to know your skin type. Pixabay

Sunscreen is your best friend, whether you’re stepping out shopping or going about your work and chores, it protects your skin from harmful UVA/UVB rays and pollution that cause damage in any and every season. Not only outdoors, but sunscreens also plays a crucial role in protecting your skin while you are indoors from UVA rays which enter through standard glass windows and can penetrate deeper into the skin than UVB rays, becoming a contributing factor to photo-aging — which are changes seen as dark spots, wrinkles, and leathery textured skin.

Broadly there are four types of skin and to choose the best sunscreen it’s very important to know your skin type. This can be done by washing your face with the help of a gentle cleanser. This will wash away the makeup, pollutants, and other dirt. Wait for an hour and make sure that you do not touch your face. Your skin should return to its natural state which will help to determine the type of your skin. Take a tissue paper and dab your face. The area consisting of your forehead and nose must be the place where you concentrate.


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* Normal Skin: If your skin shows no oil or no flaking and it feels smooth and supple, you have a normal skin type

* Oily Skin: If there is lots of grease on the tissue paper, then you have an oily skin type. It is common that you might have a shine and large pores

* Dry Skin: If the tissue paper is accompanied by lots of flakes and dead skin, then your skin is dry. You need to consider moisturizing your skin

* Combination: Any combination of the above-mentioned skin types is a combination skin type. This is a very common skin type. Your skin is generally oily in the forehead and nose area and dry elsewhere


If your skin shows no oil or no flaking and it feels smooth and supple, you have a normal skin type. Pixabay

Now that you know your skin type, it’s easy to choose the perfect SPF Sunscreen for yourself. If you have dry skin, look for a sunscreen with a moisturizer or sunscreens that contain hydrating ingredients (ceramides or hyaluronic acid). If you have an oily skin type, creamy sunscreens can usually feel sticky and heavy. Opt-in for water-based or a lightweight formula sunscreen which is considered ideal for oily skin type.

ALSO READ: Study: Eating Grapes Protect Against Sunburn And Ultraviolet Skin Damage

If you’re blessed with normal, uncomplicated skin, your choice is easy. Any high-quality sunscreen will work for you, whether spray, cream, or stick. Along with the SPF factor, it is equally important to look at the PA factor. SPF is a grade used to rate the level of UVB protection. The higher the number, the higher the UVB protection.

PA is a grade used to rate the level of UVA protection. The more “+” symbols, the higher the UVA protection. Typical sunscreens offer protection from mostly UVB Rays. UVB Rays burn your skin while UVA rays cause skin aging and age spots when your skin is overexposed. A broad-spectrum sunscreen or a full spectrum sunscreen protects you from both. (IANS/JC)


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Indian astronomers have found an active galaxy in a very bright state with 10 times more X-ray emission than normal

Indian astronomers have found an active galaxy in a very bright state with 10 times more X-ray emission than normal, equivalent to more than 10 trillion of the sun, and located five billion light years away that could help probe how particles behave under intense gravity and acceleration to the speed of light.

It could help study the role of strong gravity and acceleration of matter in the formation, interaction and evolution of galaxies in the early universe.

Every galaxy in the universe is believed to host a supermassive black hole at its centre. In some galaxies, the black hole is actively devouring a large amount of material and shooting a jet of plasma almost at the speed of light towards us. These are called blazars.

OJ 287 belongs to a class of blazars known as BL Lacertae objects which show very rapid and large amplitude flux variations but barely discernible emission line features.

This class of sources emit in the whole electromagnetic spectrum, a rather uncommon phenomenon which requires extreme physical conditions. Hence, a study of such sources tells us about the behaviour of matter in an extreme gravitational field where it is difficult for light to escape from the vicinity of the black hole.

Astronomers at Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, an autonomous institute of the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, have been monitoring one such black hole system named 'OJ 287' since 2015. This source shows a repeated optical brightness enhancement almost every 12 years.

"The repeated optical enhancement makes OJ 287 very intriguing as this class of sources does not show any repeating features in flux variations. The repeated optical enhancement made the researchers believe that the system hosts a binary black hole," said a release from the Ministry of Science and Technology.

In 2020, the source was very bright at optical and X-ray bands with X-ray flux more than 10 times the normal (non-active phase) flux. This flare was very different as it was not expected in models proposed for this source and thus, indicated a more complex system and physical conditions.

Investigating the extreme brightness shown by OJ 287 at optical and X-ray bands, astronomers led by Pankaj Kushwaha and Alok C. Gupta reported the source in a completely new spectral state.

The team argued that this change of state holds clues to the researcher's quest to understand how matter behaves in very strong gravity and how it accelerates the particle to almost the speed of light -- a feat that is out of the scope of even the most advanced CERN accelerator.

The research published in 'The Astrophysical Journal' tracked the details of changes in optical to the X-ray emission spectrum of the source with time from 2017 to 2020 -- after the second brightest X-ray flare of the source. It revealed how the source gradually started to change its spectral behaviour from mid-2018 to the new spectral state in 2020.

The study included data recorded by the ground-based facility operated by Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, operated Mount Abu observing facility in near infra-red bands and the space-based NASA's satellites -- the Niels Gherel Swift satellite at optical, UV and X-rays with gamma ray data from the Fermi satellite, the release added. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Science, NASA, Satellites, Black Hole, Gravity, India


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Tospread awareness about the significance of reading, Rachna Kalra, who hails from Gurugram (Haryana), started the Silent Book Club in the year 2019.

Who doesn't like reading, and that, too, reading along the company of mother nature? Well, this book club is truly a fantasy turned to reality.

As said by a regular reader at the Silent Book Club, “There is something meditative about reading. Sitting quietly with a book, without any distractions, is almost spiritual for me," this exactly is the case with many such readers.

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Ninety-eight per cent of Indian travellers say they want to stay in a sustainable accommodation in the coming year.

A Travel Sustainable badge, provides highly coveted information to travellers all over the world looking to make more sustainable travel choices. Booking.com has launched the Travel Sustainable Badge, a first of its kind in the industry, designed to be applicable to a wide range of property types, from apartments, B&Bs, and vacation homes to hotels, resorts, and even treehouses, and adaptable to local realities and considerations.

Ninety-eight per cent of Indian travellers say they want to stay in a sustainable accommodation in the coming year, and with more than 28 million listings on Booking.com, the company sees a huge opportunity to highlight more of the impactful efforts its partners are making to create more sustainable experiences, making it easier for travellers to find a sustainable way to stay.

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With 88 percent of Indian travellers indicating that they would be more likely to choose a specific accommodation that implements sustainable practices, it rewards and encourages providers to take the next steps on their individual sustainability journeys.

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