Never miss a story

Get subscribed to our newsletter


×
Chromium was detected in all green and UVAG bottles, but was only in 40 per cent of brown glass and not present in clear glass. Pixabay

Researchers have discovered extremely harmful levels of toxic carcinogenic substances such as lead, cadmium and chromium in the enamelled decoration of beer, wine and spirits bottles.

The team at the University of Plymouth analysed both the glass and enamelled decorations on a variety of clear and coloured alcohol bottles readily available in shops and supermarkets.


The enamels were of greater concern, with cadmium concentrations of up to 20,000 parts per million in the decorated regions on a range of spirits, beer and wine bottles and lead concentrations up to 80,000 ppm in the decor of various wine bottles. The limit for lead in consumer paints is 90ppm.


“This poses obvious challenges for the glass industry and for glass recycling and is perhaps something that needs to be factored into future legislation covering this area,” said Turner. Pixabay

“It has always been a surprise to see such high levels of toxic elements in the products we use on a daily basis. This is just another example of that, and further evidence of harmful elements being unnecessarily used where there are alternatives available,” said Andrew Turner, Associate Professor (Reader) in Aquatic Geochemistry and Pollution Science.

“The added potential for these substances to leach into other items during the waste and recycling process is an obvious and additional cause for concern,” he added in a paper published in the journal Environmental Science and Technology.

The study also showed the elements had the potential to leach from the enamelled glass fragments and when subjected to a standard test that simulates rainfall in a landfill site. For the current research, bottles of beer, wine and spirits were purchased from local and national retail outlets, with the sizes ranging from 50 ml to 750 ml.


The team at the University of Plymouth analysed both the glass and enamelled decorations on a variety of clear and coloured alcohol bottles readily available in shops and supermarkets. Pixabay

Out of the glass from 89 bottles, 76 were positives for low levels of lead and 55 positive for cadmium. Chromium was detected in all green and UVAG bottles, but was only in 40 per cent of brown glass and not present in clear glass.

ALSO READ: People Who Take Cholesterol-Lowering Statins are at Higher Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes

Meanwhile, the enamels of 12 products out of 24 enamelled products tested were based wholly or partly on compounds of either or both lead and cadmium.

“When we contacted suppliers, many of them said the bottles they use are imported or manufactured in a different country than that producing the beverage. “This poses obvious challenges for the glass industry and for glass recycling and is perhaps something that needs to be factored into future legislation covering this area,” said Turner.


Popular

Unsplash

Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal.

"In India, to be born as a man is a crime, to question a woman is an atrocious crime, and this all because of those women who keep suppressing men in the name of feminism."

Feminism, a worldwide movement that started to establish, define and defend equal rights for women in all sections- economically, politically, and socially. India, being a patriarchal society gives a gender advantage to the men in the society thus, Indian feminists sought to fight against the culture-specific issue for women in India. Feminism itself is nothing but a simple movement that pursues equal rights for women (including transwomen) and against misogyny both external and internal. It states nowhere that women should get more wages than men, that women deserve more respect than men, that's pseudo-feminism.

Keep Reading Show less
wikimedia commons

Yakshi statue by Kanayi Kunjiraman at Malampuzha garden, Kerala

Kerala is a land of many good things. It has an abundance of nature, culture, art, and food. It is also a place of legend and myth, and is known for its popular folklore, the legend of Yakshi. This is not a popular tale outside the state, but it is common knowledge for travellers, especially those who fare through forests at night.

The legend of the yakshi is believed to be India's equivalent of the Romanian Dracula, except of course, the Yakshi is a female. Many Malayalis believe that the Yakshi wears a white saree and had long hair. She has a particular fragrance, which is believed to be the fragrance of the Indian devil-tree flowers. She seduces travellers with her beauty, and kills them brutally.

Keep Reading Show less
Pinterest

Ancient India not only made mentions of homosexuality but accepted it as well.


The LGBTQ+ acronym stands for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and others. In India LGBTQ+ community also include a specific social group, part religious cult, and part caste: the Hijras. They are culturally defined either as "neither men nor women" or as men who become women by adopting women's dress and behavior. Section 377 of the India Penal code that criminalized all sexual acts "against the order of nature" i.e. engaging in oral sex or anal sex along with other homosexual activities were against the law, ripping homosexual people off of their basic human rights. Thus, the Indian Supreme Court ruled a portion of Section 377 unconstitutional on 6th September 2018.

Keep reading... Show less