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How angry “Hindi” voters turned the tables against Congress in 1977 elections

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credits: intoday.in

By Praveen Chakravarty

New Delhi: “If the majority rule were to apply, the crow should be our national bird, not the peacock”. A quote attributed to the Tamil leader C.N. Annadurai during a protest speech in 1962 against the imposition of Hindi as a national language, 13 years before the imposition of emergency by Indira Gandhi.

Annadurai went on to become the chief minister of Madras in 1967, galvanizing support through the anti-Hindi movement, defeating the Congress party in Tamil Nadu for the first time and forever.

The Congress party has never won in Tamil Nadu since. Ironically, a decade later, it was this “Hindi voter” that dealt the Congress party its first national defeat in parliamentary elections in 1977, after the emergency was lifted.

Twelve states accounted for 90 percent of all votes cast in the 1977 election. Using a loose definition of “Hindi” and “Non-Hindi” states, six “Hindi” states accounted for 65 percent of votes and the six “Non-Hindi” states, the remaining 35 percent. Our loose categorization of Hindi states include Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Rajasthan. The non-Hindi states are Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, West Bengal and Orissa.

One hundred and twenty million voters in these twelve states had a direct choice to express their anger against the emergency by voting against the Congress candidate on their ballot. Seventy million (63 percent) did. But 90 percent of all these angry voters were confined to the six “Hindi” states. Further, there were 376 constituencies in which there was a Congress candidate under Indira Gandhi’s leadership in both the 1971 and 1977 elections.

Fifty-two percent of these voted for the Congress candidate in the 1971 elections vs 38 percent only in the 1977 elections represented an absolute loss of 4.3 million voters for the Congress between 1971 and 1977. Incredulously however, 6.3 million incremental voters voted AGAINST the Congress in 1977 in the six “Hindi” states while 2 million voters incrementally voted FOR the Congress in the “non-Hindi” states.

Overall, in the “non-Hindi” states, roughly the same percentage of voters that voted for the Congress in 1971 did so in 1977. One state, Uttar Pradesh, accounted for 73 percent of all angry voters that treated the Congress with contempt while ironically, the voter in Tamil Nadu seemed nonchalant and even marginally happier with the Congress in 1977 vis-a-vis 1971. Ninety percent of all anger (vote share swing vis-a-vis 1971) was concentrated in three “Hindi” states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan.

The Congress lost 167 seats across these twelve states in 1977 from the 1971 elections, of which 168 seats were lost in the six “Hindi” states and a gain of one seat in the six “non-Hindi” states. It is of telling significance that 40 million voters in the six “non-Hindi” states did not deem Indira Gandhi worthy of punishment for masterminding arguably independent India’s most heinous crime.

While one can nitpick over whether Maharashtra and Gujarat can truly be defined as “Hindi”, the larger point of this analysis is the massive diversion in reaction to what is generally considered a terrible action by any standards. To the ardent observer of Indian society and its history, this is rightly no big revelation or surprise. However, we still miss a scholarly narrative about why the “non-Hindi” citizen was not alarmed by the Emergency vis-a-vis her fellow “Hindi” citizen.

Was it the perceived positive impact of the 20-point programme? Was it the absence of a strong opposition in these “non-Hindi” states to galvanize support against the Emergency? Was it the lack of a credible alternative for people to vent their anger with? Was it the notion that local governance mattered much more than any suspension of civil liberties?

While Annadurai got his wish granted of Hindi not being imposed, has that inadvertently exacerbated and prolonged this chasm in voting behaviour between the “Hindi” states and “non Hindi” states, as was evident even in the 2014 Lok Sabha elections? (IANS)

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Unity in Diversity is the Strength of the Country: Rahul Gandhi

Country can't benefit if brothers fight, says Rahul Gandhi

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Rahul Gandhi
Former Congress President Rahul Gandhi said that making brothers fight against each other cannot benefit the country. Wikimedia Commons

Former Congress President Rahul Gandhi on Friday attacked the policies of the central government and said that unity in diversity is our strength, and the strength of the country will increase by uniting all.

He said “making brothers fight against each other cannot benefit the country.”

Rahul Gandhi was speaking at the inauguration ceremony of the three-day National Tribal Dance Festival here in the Chhattisgarh on Friday.

He said: “Without taking everyone together, every religion, every caste, tribal, Dalit, or backward, the country’s economy cannot run. Until all the people of this country are united, until everyone’s voice is heard in the Assembly and in the Lok Sabha, nothing can be done about unemployment or about the economy.”

Rahul Gandhi Congress
Rahul Gandhi raised questions about the current economic situation. Wikimedia Commons

Rahul raised questions about the current economic situation and the relief given to a select few: “The economy is run by the peasants, labourers, the poor and the tribals. If all the money is given to 10-15 people, demonetisation is done, wrong GST is implemented, then employment cannot be created in India, economy cannot run.”

Appreciating the initiatives taken by the Chhattisgarh government, Rahul Gandhi said: “Here farmers, youth, tribals, women are being heard and are taking the state forward.”

“Together, everyone is taking this state forward. It makes a difference, violence has reduced here, the economy here is overtaking other states. This difference is visible, because nothing can be made by disintegrating, the country cannot benefit by making brothers fight each other.”

Also Read- PM Narendra Modi Launches Plan to Tackle Water Shortage in India

Describing the National Tribal Festival as a symbol of unity in diversity, Rahul Gandhi said: “Tribals have come here from different parts of the country. They will display their culture and art here, unity will be seen in diversity.”

A three-day National Tribal Dance Festival began on Friday at the Science College ground in the capital, in which tribals from 25 states will participate. Artists from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Uganda, Belarus and Maldives are also attending this festival. (IANS)