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IIT researchers find new clues to how stars die. Unsplash

Researchers from the Indian Institute of Technology IIT Guwahati have revealed important clues to understand the death of massive stars and have also revealed the problems with the existing models.

The study, done in collaboration with researchers from Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, Germany, and Northwestern University, US, indicates that all three species of the neutrinos from the supernovae are important contrary to the common treatments with only two flavours.


Neutrinos are considered to be the most crucial ingredient in the mechanism of core-collapse supernova explosions, death of large, massive stars. And supernovae is the super explosions at the time of death of large massive stars are considered to be the cradle of birth for new stars and synthesis of the heavy elements in nature.

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At the end of their life, the stars, especially massive ones, collapse resulting in an immense shock wave that causes the star to explode, briefly outshining any other star in its host galaxy.

The study of supernovae and the particles they release helps us understand the universe because almost all matter that makes up the universe is a result of these massive explosions.

“However, the mechanism of these super explosions is not yet completely solved and has remained one of the enigmas of nature,” said the researcher, Sovan Chakraborty, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, IIT Guwahati.


The study was done in collaboration with researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, Germany, and Northwestern University, US. Flickr

The solutions to the toughest challenges to the core-collapse mechanism of the huge supernovae come from the tiniest subatomic particles called neutrinos, according to a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters (PRL).

Want to read more in Hindi? Checkout: भारत बनने की कहानी का ऐतिहासिक दस्तावेज है Sandeep Bamzai की किताब ‘Princestan’

During the core-collapse supernova explosion, neutrinos are created in several particle processes. Due to their neutral nature and extremely weak interaction with stellar matter, the neutrinos escape the dying star and carry 99 per cent energy of the collapsing star.

Thus the tiny neutrinos are the only messenger bringing information from the deepest interiors of the star.

“This information is very crucial for the reason that in the extremely dense supernovae core neutrinos interact with other neutrinos and may interchange flavours. This conversion may happen rapidly (in nanosecond time scale) and flavour interchange can affect the supernovae process as the different flavours are emitted with different angular distribution,” Chakraborty said.

“These ‘fast’ conversions are nonlinear in nature and are not confronted in any other neutrino sources but supernovae. We for the first time did a non-linear simulation of fast conversion with ‘all’ the three neutrino flavours in supernovae,” Chakraborty added.

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This becomes possible as new supernova simulations show the presence of muons in the supernovae and in turn produce asymmetry between muon neutrinos and antineutrinos, taken to be zero otherwise, implying three flavour effects. (IANS)


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Delhi to get new QR-based driving livenses and registration certificates.

In a step towards digitisation of the system, Delhi Transport Department will soon issue QR based Smart cards for driving licenses (DLs) and registration certificates (RCs).

As per a statement, the new driving licence will have an advanced microchip with features like Quick Response (QR) code and Near Field Communication (NFC). The new RC will have the owner's name printed on the front while the microchip and the QR code would be embedded at the back of the card.

The cards earlier had embedded chips, but chip reader machines were not available in the required quantity with both the Delhi Traffic Police and the Enforcement Wing of the Transport Department. Moreover, chips were designed and implemented by the states concerned, which resulted in difficulties in reading the chip and retrieving information, especially in case of defaulters.

"Now with the QR based smart card, this issue is resolved. This will enable unification in linking and validating one's information to smart cards with Sarathi and Vahan, the two web-based databases of all driving licenses and vehicle registrations," the release added.

The QR is also being implemented nationwide, the QR code reader is easily procurable and will do away with the requirement of any manual intervention altogether. The new cards will also allow two specific materials for their card manufacturing -- PolyVinyl Chloride or PVC, or PolyCarbonate which is slightly more expensive but more durable. (Card Size - 85.6mm x 54.02 mm; Thickness minimum 0.7 mm)

An October 2018 notification of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH) had made changes to the Driving License and Registration Certificate. The new Smart card based DL and RC, will have chip based/ QR code based recognition system. At the same time, documents such as driving license or registration certificates in electronic formats on DigiLockers and mParivahan were also made valid in place of physical documents and treated at par with original documents.

The QR code also has an added advantage of acting as a safety feature on the smart card. The department will be able to retain records and penalties of the DL holder for up to 10 years on the VAHAN database as soon as a driver/ owner's Smart card is confiscated. The new DLs will also help the government in maintaining records of differently-abled drivers, any modifications made to the vehicles, emission standards and the person's declaration to donate organs. (IANS/JB)

Keywords: Delhi, Driving License, Registration License, Digitisation.