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KARNATAKA, September 16, 2016: As Karnataka continues its legal battle over the Cauvery, the state’s capital- almost entirely dependent on the river- wastes half the water it receives, according to an IndiaSpend analysis of water-use data.
The only Indian city that wastes water at a greater rate is Kolkata. And the situation in Bengaluru will only worsen.
Every Bangalorean- 8.5 million people live in India’s third-most populous city- should get 150 litres of water per day. But what she gets is 65 litres, the equivalent of four flushes of a toilet. Water is supplied, on average, thrice a week.
Over the next nine years, the city’s water demand is predicted to be three times more than supply.
Its population density 13 times higher than Karnataka’s average, Bengaluru consumes 50 percent of Cauvery water reserved for domestic use in Karnataka. As much as 49 per cent of this water supplied is what is called “non-revenue water” or “unaccounted for water” — i.e., water lost in distribution — according to the Bengaluru Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) data.
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“Inequitable supply to different parts of the city — ranging from one-third to three times the average per capita daily supply — makes this worse,” Krishna Raj, associate professor at the Institute for Social and Economic Change (ISEC), Bengaluru, and author of a 2013 paper on the city’s water supply system, told IndiaSpend.
Bengaluru’s water loss is the second-highest among Indian metros: Kolkata leads at 50 per cent. The wastage figure for Mumbai is 18 percent, New Delhi, 26 per cent and Chennai, 20 per cent. Across the world, cities lose only about 15 to 20 percent of their supply, said the ISEC study, which pegged Bengaluru’s losses at 48 percent three years ago.
Former BWSSB chairman, T.M. Vijay Bhaskar, admitted to a loss of about 46 percent water at a conference in February 2016. “Of 1,400 MLD (million litres per day) of water pumped to the city, 600 MLD goes to waste,” he said.
The ISEC paper attributed the wastage to two types of distributional losses: First, damages, and leakages in the water supply system and, second, unauthorised water connections.
“Water leakages largely take place at distribution mains, service pipes and stand posts and together account for 88.5 percent of water spillover, the rest being low leakages at the main valve, meter joint stop valve, ferrule, air valve and others,” the paper said. “This huge loss is directly attributed to the water seepage at various stages of supply.”
Of the 270 thousand million cubic ft (TMC) of Cauvery water allotted to Karnataka by the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal, Raj estimated that, roughly, about 80 percent is used for agriculture and industry (down from over 90 percent in 2007). This leaves about 20 percent for rural and urban domestic use, of which Bengaluru records the highest demand.
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The city receives about 19 TMC of Cauvery water. Recently, the Karnataka State Urban Development Department provisionally raised supply by an additional 10 TMC to meet the needs of 110 villages added to the metropolitan area in 2007. A formal proposal to raise the city’s water supply to 30 TMC from the Cauvery basin has been forwarded to the central government.
Sourced from a distance of 100 km, up to a height of 540 m, the BWSSB spends nearly 60 percent of its budget in pumping water to the Bengaluru metropolitan region. With groundwater reserves overexploited and polluted, and its other two ageing reservoirs — the 120-year-old Heseraghatta and 83-year-old Thippegondanahalli of Cauvery’s Arkavathi tributary — unreliable, Bengaluru is almost entirely dependent on the disputed river.
The large water losses, which ISEC has recorded for the last five years at least, offset any efforts to augment water supply through various stages of Cauvery river water supply projects. Thus, efforts to enhance per capita water availability to 150 litres per capita per day (LPCD) to meet World Health Organisation (WHO) and Central Public Health and Environmental Organisation (CPEEHO) standards remain unfulfilled.
“After Stage IV Phase II of the Cauvery Water Supply Scheme (CWSS) was commissioned recently, Bengaluru now receives 1,350 MLD of water daily,” said Raj. “For the city’s population of 8.5 million (Census 2011), this quantity officially raises per capita water availability to 158.82 litres, which is more than sufficient to meet the WHO and CPEEHO standards.” (IANS)
A chewing gum laced with a plant-grown protein serves as a "trap" for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, reducing viral load in saliva and potentially tamping down transmission, finds a new study.
The researchers exposed saliva samples from Covid-19 patients to the ACE2 gum and found that levels of viral RNA fell so dramatically to be almost undetectable, indicates the study published in the journal Molecular Therapy.
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"SARS-CoV-2 replicates in the salivary glands, and we know that when someone d sneezes, coughs, or speaks some of that virus can be expelled and reach others," said researcher Henry Daniell from the University of Pennsylvania in the US.
"This gum offers an opportunity to neutralise the virus in the saliva, giving us a simple way to possibly cut down on a source of disease transmission," Daniell added.
To test the chewing gum, the team grew angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in plants, paired with another compound that enables the protein to cross mucosal barriers and facilitates binding, and incorporated the resulting plant material into cinnamon-flavoured gum tablets.
Incubating samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs from Covid-positive patientsUnsplash
Also read: 1 in 3 COVID-19 survivors suffer mental illness
Incubating samples obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs from Covid-positive patients with the gum, they showed that the ACE2 present could neutralise SARS-CoV-2 viruses.
Those initial investigations were followed by others, in which viruses, less-pathogenic than SARS-CoV-2, were modified to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
The team observed that the gum largely prevented the viruses or viral particles from entering cells, either by blocking the ACE2 receptor on the cells or by binding directly to the spike protein.
The research team is currently working toward obtaining permission to conduct a clinical trial to evaluate whether the approach is safe and effective when tested in people infected with SARS-CoV-2.(IANS/PR)
(Keywords: Covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 virus, chewing gum)
After the release of HUH Token’s White Paper and the buzz around the soon-to-be launching cryptocurrency, it’s no wonder that the crypto world is wondering whether or not Shiba Inu’s year of meme coin supremacy is coming to an end.
Shiba Inu rose to crypto fame in the august of 2020 and just a little over a year from that point, where Shiba Inu knocked Dogecoin off top dog spot… it appears that HUH Token could be set to take the cryptocurrency world by storm on its launch: Monday December 6th. And with it the possible end of Shiba Inu’s reign as the supreme meme coin.
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Though, you might be wondering how it is that HUH Token could do that, possibly end Shiba Inu’s year of the dog? Although it seems, that a glimpse at HUH Token’s White Paper, a listen to the shouts of the cryptocurrency fanatics and a read of this article could answer that for you.
Shiba Inu Really Passing on the Torch?
Over the past year, Shiba Inu performed remarkably well on the cryptocurrency market after using the power of the media and its influence to take Dogecoin off the top spot.
Though it seems, that with buzz around the unique cryptocurrency, HUH Token, could be prized to take Shiba Inu from that top spot and there is a plethora of reasons why.
HUH Token’s White Paper release demonstrated a detailed explanation of HUH Token’s aims, goals, technology and what lies at their golden centre- HUH Token Holders, HUH Nation and as HUH Token grows the MetHUH.
This is what could set Shiba Inu and HUH Token lightyears apart… HUH Token’s revolutionary prospects.
HUH Token intend to be a decentralised metaverse where everyone gains from whatever data they’ve generated and that means that HUH Token have discovered what the currency of influence is and that is you and HUH.
Though the two-days-till launch cryptocurrency, HUH Token, doesn’t stop there, in fact, the White Paper outlines how HUH Token could be one of, if not the only, safer cryptocurrency on the crypto market today.
This would be achieved by harnessing HUH Token’s multichain technology that uses Ethereum and Binance blockchains, yield generating contracts (Binance Smart Contract) and an always-open bug bounty.
These steps help to bring a level of safety to HUH Token holders and their growing HUH Nation as a whole… as well as autonomising HUH Token holders in the process, where it appears that individuality is supported by HUH Token.
Though it seems that Shiba Inu might still have some years in it yet, but HUH Token seem to be able to hold their own in a dog fight to the top.
The Future is Utimeme
As mentioned above HUH Token enjoy the essence of duality, because together we are stronger… for that reason HUH Token’s creators envisioned and realised the function and technology of a utimeme cryptocurrency, that has the power and influence of a meme coin but the usability of a utility coin and this where HUH Token is created.
This alone could see Shiba Inu’s year of the dog come to an end, but it’s always advised to do your own research before becoming a holder in any cryptocurrency.
This being said, there are two days left before HUH Token’s Monday December 6th launch and there might not be that much time left for you to benefit from HUH Token’s presale and receive a 35% bonus on top of $1000 deposit.
I for one can’t wait for HUH Token’s launch as it feels like something great is about to happen for the cryptocurrency world.
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(Disclaimer: This article is sponsored and includes some commercial links.)
Investing in the cryptocurrency business is one of the most intelligent choices one can make in the modern-day. In 2021, the sector exhibited its promise, with cryptocurrencies like Ethereum (ETH), Bitcoin (BTC) and Shiba Inu (SHIB) seeing optimistic growth and creating numerous billionaire investors. The market is still in its infancy, and there is an impossible number of exciting cryptocurrencies available for investment. HUH Token, for instance, is one of these, and it is releasing today!
Comprehending a cryptocurrency’s most recent release helps to compare it to previous accomplishments. HUH Token (HUH), Cardano (ADA) and Solana (SOL) are three cryptocurrencies that every crypto trader should be familiar with. These are coins with high usefulness and a robust growth plan. Cardano and Solana are two growing blockchain technologies in the crypto world.
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The two blockchains address Ethereum’s and Bitcoin’s scalability, security, and transaction costs problems. At present, Cardano and Solana both have higher throughput than Ethereum.
Cardano is more experienced than Solana, having launched in 2017 and doing tremendous things. This is one of the reasons why ADA has done so well. Similarly, to Solana, the Cardano platform circumvents the constraints mentioned earlier with a proof-of-Stake consensus method instead of proof-of-work. The success of the Cardano and Solana blockchains contributes to the ever-increasing demand for their respective coins.
Cardano and Solana have already released their 2022 roadmaps, sparking the crypto community’s curiosity. Demand for Cardano and Solana will increase significantly in 2022 due to substantial advancements.
Investors should, however, put a more considerable premium on HUH Token. When the HUH Token is released, it will go to the moon. It is a token designed to reward investors by just holding tokens. HUH Token is based on a multi-chain system that has already made great efforts to develop a decentralised financial system via a proprietary referral system.
Soon to be published for the HUH Tokens ecosystem are significant projects such as metHUH, a social network that will revolutionise social media’s world via tokenised sentiment analysis. HUH Token is an excellent gift for Christmas due to its incentive structure, which benefits holders based on the percentage of their holdings. For example, if a holder owns 0.1% of the supply, they will get 0.1% of the HUH prize holdings.
This ensures that all HUH token holders are fairly compensated for their investment in the social network MetHUH. The number of HUH tokens that will be displayed is determined by the sum of all HUH network buy and sell transactions.
HUH has given Elon Musk’s Foundation 20% of its total token supply to utilise for its primary goals of the Development of safe artificial intelligence to assist mankind, science and engineering education, paediatric research, human space exploration research and advocacy and, the development of safe artificial intelligence to assist mankind, and renewable energy research and advocacy.
HUH is aware that this is a marketing strategy; they are open about it; nonetheless, regardless of the outcome, the ultimate purpose is to serve society and individuals on a deeply altruistic level. HUH anticipates Elon’s reaction with bated breath.
Crypto investors looking to kick off 2022 positively would be wise to choose HUH Token as a holiday present. This cryptocurrency has immense potential because of its usability and well-thought-out growth plan, as described in their newly published white paper.
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(Disclaimer: This article is sponsored and includes some commercial links.)