Get subscribed to our newsletter
Get interesting updates to your email inbox.
By Annesha Das Gupta
People who are ardent fans of cricket are well acquainted with the legendary player Sonny Ramadhin or the ones who call themselves bibliophiles celebrated when VS Naipaul’s was conferred with the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Both of them, are of Indian descent and both are born in Trinidad and Tobago. While Ramadhin was from Esperance Village, Naipaul is from the capital; Port of Spain.
This can make one wonder, from where do the people of Indian origin come into the Caribbean picture? Or are both of them the single cases, the exceptions.
We have the NRIs who have gone and settled down in the USA or at Britain; they might be one’s relatives or neighbors or else friends. The geopolitical realm of the Caribbean, whereas, does not come into the head, especially to an Indian one, when there come, a prospect for an education or a job. The Caribbean connotes to the mind, of the tropical beaches, the coconut trees and, of course, the West-Indies cricket team.
Unfortunately, many of us forget or are just oblivious to the fact that there is a community of Indians who did spread across the various islands much before the other portions of the Indian population dispersed to the parts of the West.
Who are the Indo-Caribbean?
The British, French and Dutch colonists were in a state of jeopardy when the century-old slavery of the Africans was abolished. The African ‘slaves’ used to work in the sugarcane plantations, but with no one to fill up the vacancy they turned towards the people of China and Portugal first. But the plan did not work and as a last resort for a substantial quantity of cheap labor, they sought out the Indians. And this time, they hit the bull’s-eye.
The indentured laborers as they are called were promised remuneration, the supply of food, and even the expense, the one which will be the responsibility of the plantation owners if they want to take a voyage back to their own country.
Two ships left with the first batch of Indians (about 400 people) to the British Guiana on May 5, 1838. The ships were called Whitby and Hesperus, which left the port of Calcutta with people mainly belonging to the Chota Nagpur area of West Bengal, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh.
Most of the people who took on the journey were from the lower class/caste strata or as known today, were the Dalits. It is worth a mention that very few women comprised the first batch; only a maximum of 35%. The reason for the scanty number of women who voyaged, at first, is explained by the historians and sociologists in three main points. Firstly, the colonists did not consider women to be economically beneficial.
Secondly, the men who came were mostly married and assuming that they will be returning to their homeland at the end of their contract (which was meant to be after 5 years), they did not bring their wives along with them. And finally, since most of the persisting societal norms limited the movement of women within the society, for instance, those who were unmarried, were not allowed to take a voyage alone and also that the widows had no provision to remarry and join the mass again, so the female population of the first batches was on a lower scale. Though the numbers hit almost about 50% by 1380-1390, but again fell during the end of the indenture era (1914) to about 40%.
The offer by the colonial powers seemed lucrative enough; an escape route to the poor of the country who suffered invariably and wanted an alleviation of their woes. But unfortunately, as the idiom goes: ‘All that glitters is not gold”.
They were about to face an infinite amount of hindrances, which none of them were likely to foresee. And the struggles continued for about 75 years, as history knows it and only ended with the annihilation of the indenture system in 1917.
What were the struggles of the Indo-Caribbean ?
All was not hunky-dory even before the two ships left for their destinations. Many of the laborers were given false promises by the professional recruiters who were aided by paid local agents.
They were deceived in innumerable ways, as cited by a post on The Indian Down Under blog: “Names of places would be altered, to fit a higher meaning. For example, recruiters told migrants, heading to Dutch Suriname they were heading to Sri-Ram, instead of Suriname, taking into account that Ram in the Hindu religion means a religious place where good triumphs over evil”.
Many died of starvation during the voyage and their bodies were thrown (about 17% of the population) into the sea (often called by the immigrants as Kala Pani), such were the atrocities done.
There was also an outbreak of cholera, malaria and dysentery on the ships. The mortality rate was only a meager of 25%.
Especially vulnerable were the women. They had to continuously endure the lecherous stares and advances from the British lots. And apart from that the authorities used to lock them up in the rooms for more than three or four days. The women had to sleep, eat and sit in their own filth.
A lot of them were even raped and pimped out from men to men while they worked on the plantations. It is evident from the fact that one 8-year-old was raped, named Nuneedy, as soon as the first batch landed.
A Brahmin named Jugmohan used to trade out the women among the British men (especially to the Scottish lot) and anyone who wanted to keep their wives safe was forced to pay an amount of one dollar.
Though this did not subjugate the women folk entirely. They formed self-protective circles, which might have come together as they were already organized as groups which plucked weeds in the cane fields, to fend off the lecherous overseers.If one goes to Gaiutra Bahadur’s blog Coolie Women, they will come across the quote which will make anyone shudder who will dare enrage a woman’s modesty ever again –
“They would strike him to the ground and thrash him as well as do other more nasty things. In one incidence, they pinned the overseer to the ground and took turns at urinating on him. On another occasion, they made a line and walked over the overseer until his excreta came out”.
Like The Africans who were paid a wage of only one shilling, the indentured laborers were not paid even the bare minimum. They were exploited relentlessly no holidays were allotted to them. If someone took even a day off, they ran the risk of being in the jail for as much as five days.
At the year when the contract was supposed to have ended, the laborers did not find any ships at the port which would have taken them back to India. Thus, the injustice was followed by strikes which were held by the workers. One plantation named Anna Regina refused to give them the supply of food as a result. The people even insisted on paying in exchange for the food, which clearly explains that they feared that accepting rations would leave them in debt.
Later, men confronted with the British colonial police in wake for the sake of the women and the demand for obtaining their wages. Later they submitted an affidavit to Guiana Governor, Henry Light; where ten men marked the sign ‘X’ next to their names stated that they want to return immediately to their country as it was promised in their contracts.
Historians mention the infamous Rose Hill plantation conflict (1913), where many of the workers were killed and a vast number of people were injured. It was probably the deadliest indenture era suppression as stated in Bahadur’s blog.
Many laborers committed suicide during this period. They tried to run away several times by trying to cross the rivers as it was a common belief that they were not so far away from India while some even faked illness.
Another thing, worth mentioning is that the British played their old trick of ‘Divide and Rule’ even in the Caribbean. The villages of the Africans and that of the Indians were segregated. Also, as the Colonists did not want too much intermixing of the two communities, which they feared will ultimately lead to the solidarity of the workers, and that’s why the indentured laborers were allowed to keep their own religious customs, the institution of marriage, their holy books and even their own priests.
Though, where do the confluence of the slavery of the Africans and that of the indentured Indians occur? Like the Blacks, the colonists also used to whip indentured laborers, rub salt and pepper on their wounds. And perhaps, that’s why the indenture system was called ‘a new form of slavery’ and indentured laborers as the ‘bound slaves’.
By the end of the indenture era, much of the regulations were relaxed and the married couples were allowed to leave outside the plantations, in their own quarters.
Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya, an eminent educationist, and politician, also the creator of Banaras Hindu University, lobbied for the rights of the Indo-Caribbean people to the Indian Congress and urged them not to allow anymore Indians to take a voyage there. Among the other famous names, who protested against the human rights violations of the Indo-Caribbean were Mahatama Gandhi.
After the termination of the indentured system, the colonists offered the Indians their plots as they did not want the complete emancipation of the workers as their African counterparts. Though many chose to stay and continued to work on the plantations under many peaceful conditions, about 66,000 of them decided to head back again for their motherland.
How are the Indo-Caribbean people today?
For the first two or three generations, the descendants of the indentured workers were not sure about their identity of either as Indians or as members of the Caribbean islands. They slowly have incorporated themselves as people of Indo-Caribbean origin. The amalgamation of two very dynamic cultures.
We can have an idea of them, in the recent times, by looking at the numbers of days, celebrated in different parts of the Caribbean islands as ‘Indian Arrival Day’. It is to commemorate the presence of the community and their valuable contributions in the arenas of agriculture, economy, education and politics.
The Indo-Caribbean community also helped to expand the cultural spectrum of the regions. For instance, the Indo-Caribbean gave birth to the musical genre of Chutney, whose pioneers include Drupatee Ramgoonai. The songs have lots of Hindi and Bhojpuri lyrics along with Caribbean English. Also due to the Indian influence, ‘the Roti’ has almost become a staple food of the masses there.
Jamaica was the first to start celebrating, the arrival of the Indians on May 10, 1995. Many other countries followed suit and declared holidays to respect the people of the community like Guyana (May 5), Trinidad and Tobago (May 30), etc.
Some of the Indo-Caribbean people have become twice or thrice migrants by settling down their communities in places like that of New York.
The current population of the Indian community in the various islands of the Caribbean is estimated to be over two million people.
Still there remains much to be done on the topic about the heritage and history of the Indo-Caribbean to be induced, into the mainstreamed dissemination and discourse. Whether the goal will be achieved or not, only time can tell.
Annesha Das Gupta is a student of Sociology,pursuing her degree from IGNOU, Kolkata. She has a special interest in the branches of Feminism, Sexuality and Dalit Studies. Twitter: Dancingbluepen
By- Muhammad Usman
Moving in a straight direction to curly could be a nightmare, and when it's done to your hair that's natural, it's nearly impossible to reverse this process quickly. Additionally, the process of changing your hair's colour between light and dark may be stunning or a complete mess. The ability to alter the texture of a lace wig or paint can be an excellent solution for many people looking for new looks for their appearance. If you're thinking about dying your product, it is best to learn the kind of hair that can be dyed easily.
Remy's hair is considered to be processed, and therefore. However, they can use dyes ranging from light to dark or dark to light; it will need to be by using professional-grade products or otherwise called permanent dye. However, the hair that is naturally coloured can be dyed using light or strong chemicals as they often are natural in the shade and pose minimal or no problem in changing the hue to a lighter shade, such as blonde or red.
Follow NewsGram on Facebook to stay updated.
However, one of the factors you need to consider when buying an entire lace wig created using Remy's hair concerns the type of dye used in the production process. It isn't easy to alter if a garment dye was employed in place of hair dye. However, with the help of hair colour removers, you will achieve the desired shade. To get the best results, apply mild shampoo closure lace frontal and deep conditioner after dips the hair in the formula for removing colour. Also, make sure not to stay in there for too long because it can cause bleaching to your hair. Lace is one of the gorgeous imitations that have ever been made of nature's fantasies, and lace has always brought to me those fantastic patterns that the leaves and branches of trees embroidered across the sky.
I can't imagine that any invention from human imagination could be more elegant or precise a source." -- Coco Chanel, 29 April 1939. Garment accessories are an essential part for dressmakers, and this is the reason for their significance. It's virtually impossible to design a prepared garment without the aid of accessories for clothing. They typically include buttons, zippers, fabric as well as labels. However, off late ribbons and laces have gained a special place in the realm of fashion design. According to the definition, lace is an openwork fabric that is patterned with holes in the work. It is generally made using machines and occasionally using hands.
Lace wigs are one of the gorgeous imitations that have ever been made of nature's fantasiesPixabay
Lace-making, which is considered an old art, is made by looping threads and twisted or braided or tied to another line without regard to the backing fabric. However, the term ribbon refers to a fragile piece of elastic material utilized primarily to connect and bond. Silk ribbons, mostly made of cloth, are typically employed to add style to clothing, but they can be used for other uses, such as florists, gift packaging, etc. There are a variety of laces, but the ones most frequently sought-after are needle, outwork tape, bobbin, and knitted.
Today, most fashion weeks (especially renowned ones) have a specific segment dedicated to garments made of ribbon and lace. Sometimes, the entire week is dedicated to these items. With more and more designers are using ribbons and laces to create new and unique designs, the ribbon and laces suppliers and makers are returning to the market with an erupting roar! Insiders in the industry say that lace and ribbon are the most popular and beautiful border decoration materials. The use of these materials adds a hint of softness and class because of the flowing nature of the materials.
ALSO READ: Hair Care Routine for Winters
Luvmehair provides the highest quality hair products in the industry while guaranteeing professional and informed expert assistance for a pampering online shopping experience.
Slowly but steadily increasing demand for Indian laces and ribbons is growing, and the suppliers of ribbons and lace are expecting a better year to come. The majority of full-lace wigs are generally considered an option to replace hair for people suffering from a condition that causes hair loss or Alopecia. They appear quite natural, including a hairline that is not discernible to anyone's naked eyes. Furthermore, naturally growing hair can also be styled, parted, and put into a low, medium or high ponytail. The saying goes that hair is your reflection, and plenty of men and women will agree among the top essential aspects of a properly groomed individual is the way they dress their hair.
Disclaimer: (This article is sponsored and includes some commercial links)
London (CNN)- At five o'clock in the morning, the esteemed 86-year-old astrophysicist Jim Peebles was woken suddenly by the telephone ringing."In previous experience, the only phone calls at that time of night are bad news," he said. This one was great news. "The opening sentence from the caller was: 'The Nobel committee has voted to award you the Nobel Prize in Physics. Do you accept?'" Peebles recalled. The wording threw him. Who wouldn't accept a Nobel Prize? "You know the Bob Dylan fiasco?" he said during a phone interview with CNN. "That might have put the wind up them."The "fiasco" Peebles mentions refers to the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature, which was controversially given to an utterly unimpressed Dylan.Aside from being ever-presents on college campuses in the 1960s, little connects Peebles, an expert in theoretical cosmology, with Dylan. But one of the starkest contrasts might lie in their reactions to winning a Nobel -- and the songwriter is far from the only laureate whose crowning turned out to be an awkward affair.
The five committees are notoriously secretive, fiercely shielding their choices from the outside world -- including the laureates themselves, who are told of their victories just minutes before they are announced to the public.
Jim Peebles speaking at the Nobel Prize banquet in 2019 Image credit: CNN
That tight-lipped mantra can lead to some heartening surprises, as it did for Benjamin List -- the co-winner of this year's Nobel Prize in Chemistry -- who was having coffee with his wife when he received the news.
"Sweden appears on my phone, and I look at her, she looks at me and I run out of the coffee shop to the street ... you know, that was amazing. It was very special. I will never forget," he told reporters on Wednesday after his victory was announced.It can also be far less celebratory. "I was lying in bed, and my wife woke up and heard my phone buzzing. And she yelled at me because my phone was waking her up," David MacMillan, who shared the prize with List, told BBC Radio 4 on Thursday."100% [I] missed the call. Classic Scottish person. I [didn't] believe this is happening, so I went back to bed," he added -- likely the most relatable sentence ever uttered by an expert in chiral imidazolidinone catalysts.
Follow NewsGram on Facebook to stay updated.
And for some, the sudden ascension to Nobel laureate is an unwanted intrusion altogether. "Oh Christ," British-Zimbabwean author Doris Lessing said when reporters arrived outside her house to inform her she had won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2007. "I'm sure you'd like some uplifting remarks of some kind. "It's a wonderful thing," Reinhard Genzel, an astrophysicist who won last year's Nobel Prize in Physics, told CNN of his win and the months since. "But it's a chore as well."
What it's like to win a Nobel PrizeFew Nobel winners can honestly say their lives weren't changed when they received the phone call.As long as they believe it, that is. "These days you get these cold calls, and I thought this is another one of them," Abdulrazak Gurnah, the winner of this year's literature prize, told the BBC on Thursday."This guy said, 'Hello, you have won the Nobel Prize for Literature,' And I said, 'come on, get out of here. Leave me alone,'" Gurnah said. "He talked me out of that, and gradually persuaded me."Winners often can't be contacted at all, leaving them to find out about their wins from the news, their family, or even their next-door neighbors.
Nobel Peace Prize winners Ressa and Muratov Image source: CNNEconomist Paul Milgrom was woken in the middle of the night in California by his colleague Robert Wilson banging on his front door. "Paul, it's Bob Wilson. You've won the Nobel Prize," he shouted into the intercom. "Yeah, I have? Wow," an utterly confused Milgrom responded, in an exchange captured by a doorbell camera.
Genzel's phone call came while he was in a Zoom meeting with colleagues last October. "I had absolutely no inkling," he said. "I thought, my God ... obviously this is a fantasy."
The committee's secretary told him he "couldn't say anything for 15 or 20 minutes," so Genzel tried his best to keep the news to himself. "I walked over to our meeting room ... (my colleagues) told me afterwards I was stumbling in there, slightly gazed, telling them to switch on the TV," he said.Malala Yousafzai, the youngest Nobel winner at 17, was midway through a chemistry lesson at a school in Birmingham, England, when a teacher interrupted to tell her she had won, she told Reuters.She later told Vogue that she modestly left the achievement off her university applications, because she "felt a bit embarrassed." But there are occasions, too, where the winner isn't quite as thrilled as the Nobel committee might imagine.
Dylan and Ernest Hemingway both skipped the Nobels' annual banquet; the latter made a point of telling the Swedish Academy that he had "no facility for speech making and no command of oratory." But arguably it was Lessing who had the most memorable reaction. She learned of her win as she stepped out of a taxi on the way back from the grocery store. "Have you heard the news? You've won the Nobel Prize for Literature!" an enthusiastic reporter told her. Her eyes rolled back in her head before the journalist had even finished his sentence. Lessing -- accompanied by a male acquaintance who stood next to her, bemused, his arm in a sling and a single artichoke in his hand -- was clearly more interested in collecting her shopping than talking to the world's media.
Also read: Abdulrazak Gurnah- The New Nobel Laureate
Asked how she felt, she expressed little enthusiasm: "Look, I've won all the prizes in Europe, every bloody one."
"Am I supposed to get excited, or elated, or what?" she remarked. "One can't get more excited than one gets, you know?"
'I was treated like a rock star'
As soon as Genzel's win was announced last year, his face was on televisions around the world. The announcement of a Nobel Prize winner makes the front pages of newspapers and websites almost everywhere, throwing a sudden spotlight on little-known scientists and their complex research. "Once the announcement is made, you lose your identity within half an hour," Genzel said. "The telephone rings all the time. "Peebles had a similar experience just minutes after his early morning phone call. "When I returned to bed my wife said, 'What was that about?' I said 'Nobel Prize,' and she said: Oh God." Within minutes, the couple had a photographer outside their door. Genzel suddenly found himself answering questions about politics on late-night German TV, angering some of his friends with his responses. Peebles, meanwhile, spent much of the day looking through emails from every corner of the world: "Please come visit us, please read my manuscript..."
Reinhard Genzel posing with his medal Image source: CNN
"It's one thing to say that the Nobel Prizes attract attention. It's another to experience it," he said. Sometimes, personal relationships change. "There is of course a lot of envy, from some colleagues -- many people who are close to me in the same field might very well say, 'Why did he get it?'" said Genzel. But before the Covid-19 pandemic scuppered plans for two years in a row, winners were also treated to a gala in Stockholm. "I was treated like a rock star ... I experienced what I expect rock stars to experience," Peebles said of his banquet in 2019. "It's a wonderful honor." "My attache had an almost endless list of things to do," he added. "'Now you must meet these influential people. Now you must go to a news conference. Now we will have dinner with some important people. And on and on.' "Genzel missed out on the festivities last year, but he enjoyed a low-key affair in Germany. "The governor of Bavaria offered us his residence, (and) we had a fairly nice event with the Swedish ambassador," he said. Two years on, CNN asked Peebles whether his email inbox has finally receded to pre-Nobel volumes. "I'd have to look at the data on that," he responded, ever the empiricist. But for both men and many other laureates, the most exciting part of the Nobel experience is simply that it gets people talking about science and culture.
"I find it almost a necessity to tell the public at large that there is truth, there is absolute truth," Genzel said. "What I hope is understood is the importance of the Nobel Prize in making people aware of the importance of curiosity-driven science or arts," he said. "I think it must be unique."
(This article is originally written by Bob Picheta)
Keywords: Nobel Prize, Reactions, Laureates
Married Hindu women are recognised by a red streak of vermillion in the middle of their foreheads. This is traditionally called 'sindoor', which is derived from the Sanskrit word sindura, meaning 'red lead.'. Sindoor is traditionally powdered turmeric and lime, sometimes red saffron, or red sandalwood. It is also called vermilion, or Kumkum.
Sindoor is traditionally powdered turmeric and lime, sometimes red saffron, or red sandalwood. It is also called vermilion, or Kumkum. Image source: Photo by Gayathri Malhotra on Unsplash
The origin of the practise of wearing sindoor is ambiguous, but historical records from the Harappan civilisation show that women wore sindoor as a sign of being married. Today's generation considers the wearing of sindoor an outdated and patriarchal ritual. However, there is still a large population of women who uphold the ritual of adorning their foreheads with vermilion every day.
Sindoor implies the longevity of a woman's marriage to her husband in the Hindu tradition. The longer the streak, the longer her husband's life is believed to be. Women wear it for the first time on their wedding day, when the husband applies it during the ceremony. As long as he remains alive, the red streak that fills the woman's maang, or hair partition, symbolises her fruitful married life.
When the finger used to apply the sindoor touches the pituitary gland every time, it arouses affection in a woman for her husband. Image credit: Photo by Amish Thakkar on Unsplash
The components of the red powder are believed to improve the sexual energy of the woman. When the finger used to apply the sindoor touches the pituitary gland every time, it arouses affection in a woman for her husband. The mixture that she wears on her head controls her blood pressure and activates her sexual drive.
These days, feminists do not take very lightly to the practice of wearing sindoor, as they view it as a sign of patriarchal dominance. They do not like being branded as 'belonging to a man'. They prefer to wear it as a style statement because it enhances beauty. Fashion designers have recently commissioned models to sport sindoor on the runway. New age feminists are making bids to allow widows and single women to adorn their foreheads with the vermilion streak.
Keywords: Sindoor, Marriage, Symbol, Women, Patriarchy