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Indian influence on Jamaica and Rastafarianism

Jamaica is a country in The West Indies. East Indians form <1 % of total population. Jamaican culture is influenced by Indian culture. Rastafari religious belief is considerably influenced by Hindu spiritual beliefs and practices

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By Shubhi Mangla

The popular music form, Reggae has been acknowledged by a large number of people around the world. This form of music has actually originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s. Reggae involves a powerful four-beat rhythm through drums, electric guitar, bass guitar and the scraper. The rhythms of Reggae soon emerged as Jamaica’s leading modern music and its diaspora. Reggae, gained international recognition and was soon popular in countries like US, Britain and Africa.

Reggae music- wikimedia commons
Reggae music- wikimedia commons

Jamaica, an island in the West Indies to the south of Cuba and west of Haiti is mostly linked to Africa owing to the large population of African descent present there. The island has a rich heritage, glorious history and is a fusion of diverse cultures. However, Jamaica has also been largely influenced by the Hindu culture which still remains highly unacknowledged.

Indian influence on Jamaican cuisine

Jamaican Curry Goat
Jamaican Curry Goat

An important element of Indian influence on Jamaican culture is its cuisine. Jamaican food consists of a good usage of curry leaves. Curried chicken and goat dishes are the most popular dishes of Jamaica. Locals and tourists are mostly served with curried shrimp, curries red snapper, curried lobster etc. More health conscious citizens and visitors are treated with curry vegetables. Roti and curry goat even form a part of the island’s national cuisine. Indian chutneys and hot sauces are also adopted by Jamaica’s culinary cuisine. One can easily be fascinated with the Jamaican cuisine due to this Indian flavors.

Indian arrival in Jamaica

Indian migrant workers in Jamaica- Wikimedia commons
Indian migrant workers in Jamaica- Wikimedia commons

According to, Jamaica first saw the arrival of Indians on May 10, 1845, who came to work in the sugar plantations of Clarendon, the island’s third largest church community. Their main aim was to replace the liberated African laborers who refused to work for their masters. Indians had friendly relation with African descent in Jamaica at first; hence Jamaican Africans accepted many of the Indian cultures and practices. Indians now form the third largest part of Jamaican society.

Rastafarianism and Indian influence

At the time when Reggae music was gaining dominance, Rastafarianism was growing in Jamaica. Rastafarianism began in Jamaica in 1920s and 1930s. Rastafarians believed in Jainism and Christianity and worshipped Judeo-Christian God, Jah. According to, “The Rastafarian lifestyle usually includes ritual use of marijuana, avoidance of alcohol, the wearing of one’s hair in dreadlocks, and vegetarianism”.

The leading father of Rastafarianism, Leonard Percival Howard belonged to Clarendon and grew up amongst Indians and Hindu culture. Howard believed in various Hindu rituals, their ceremonies of worshipping God, chanting “Jai Mata Di” and drinking bhang/ ganja, which are sweet flavored liquid consisting of little amount of alcohol. The practice of Ganja consumption was brought by Indian apprenticed workers which was known to cure all ills and also for religious purposes and vegetarian food. The main achievement was not food but the spread of spirituality. The early Rastafarian tenets were also influenced by Indian astronomy.

Leonard Percival Howell-
Leonard Percival Howell-

Leonard Percival Howard, who preached African ancestry and was a nature lover, borrowed many dogmas of the Rastafarian movement from the Indians. The Rastafarians also adopted the Ital diet which is of the idea that our body is a temple and it should be kept pure. Thus, it focused on eating vegetarian food (fruits, vegetables, whole grains, beans etc.). The diet came to be known as the Rastafarian diet. This high disciplined diet of vegetarianism was known to be influenced from the Indian servants who were vegetarians following an age old tradition in Hindu culture.

Ganja- wikimedia commons
Ganja- wikimedia commons

Jamaicans who lived in the countryside amongst Indians and Rastafarians were majorly utilizing Ganja/marijuana for medicinal and spiritual purposes. Though Africans used Marijuana for similar purpose, but it is Indians who were responsible for its arrival in Jamaica. People of African descent made use of this ‘herb’ for ceremonial practices. Those who practiced Kumina (an Afro-Jamaican culture which practiced western culture) also used marijuana in order to communicate with their ancestors.

Leonard’s Hindu influence was also acknowledged by Joseph Hibbert, another funding father of the Rastafarian movement in an interview with Leonard’s biographer Helene Lee who said, “After learning about the Hindu God incarnates Rama, Krishna and Buddha, Howell was convinced that every nation had their own God”. Leonard considered Emperor Selassie of Ethiopia as his African God.

Robert Nesta Marley, a popular face of reggae and Rastafari, was nicknamed as “Tuff Gong” associated to Leonard Howell who was known as Gong. The term “Gangunguru” means ‘Great King’ or ‘king of kings’ in the Hindi language as proclaimed by the book “Dread History” by Professor Robert A Hill.

Even today, Jamaica holds a significant population of Indians who are more segregated as compared to their early arrival. Most of the Indians in Jamaica are merchants who look down upon the Afro-Jamaicans. Irrespective of their present dogmatism, they must be appreciated for their contribution towards Rastafarianism and the Jamaican culture at large.


Shubhi Mangla is a student of Journalism and Mass Communication in New Delhi. She is currently working as an intern at Newsgram.

Follow her on twitter @shubhi_mangla



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Reasons Why India Has Become a Call Center Hub

Experts are expecting the industry to grow considerably in the coming years on account of a steady influx of foreign investors

India is one of the largest call centre hubs in the world. Pixabay
India is one of the largest call centre hubs in the world. Pixabay
  • India has become a call center hub
  • In past few years, the industry has seen a drastic growth
  • There are several reasons which are making this industry flourish in India at such a fast pace

For over a decade, the call center industry in India has reached at least US$710 million in revenue. Experts are expecting the industry to grow considerably in the coming years on account of a steady influx of foreign investors.

At present, there are a lot of call centers in India and nearly every multinational company has outsourced their customer service to the country. Call centers, after all, can help in terms providing better customer outreach and flexibility according to More so, it has become essential for companies to set up call centers in India as a means to lessen costs and, more importantly, achieve better growth.

UP Investor Summit saw the launch of app e-Saathi.
This upsurge in the industry is providing many people with jobs. Pixabay

Indeed, it’s not so hard to think about the reasons why India has been preferred as a call center hub by a lot of foreign corporations. For a fact, these reasons are too obvious to begin with.

Government support

Ever since it lifted obstacles that have gotten in the way, the Indian government was able to prioritize the growth of the call center industry as an important economic driver, and it has continued to do so today. With such a strong backing from policymakers, the business process outsourcing environment in the country continues to prosper.

 A competitive workforce

The first thing that’s on this list is the Indian workforce itself. A lot of companies are looking towards India not because it’s cheaper to set up a CRM arm there. It’s the Indian employees themselves that encourage companies to invest. What with a great wealth of skilled and professional workers, India is a powerhouse when it comes right down to supplying qualified individuals to the job of engaging clients from overseas.

Also Read: 7 Pro SEO Tips for Small Businesses

From text to graphics, this software does it all. Pixabay
A competitive workforce is another reason for the upsurge of call centre industry in India. Pixabay

English proficiencies

But aside from the abilities of Indian workers along the lines of customer service, it is their capacity to speak English is what drives companies from Canada and the United States to expand their operations across the subcontinent. Language, after all, is an important factor of effective CRM, and with an Indian workforce, companies can get a competitive edge.

 An effective training environment

One reason why Indian call center workers are valuable is that they are constantly trained. Nothing else can provide better results than a worker who has just updating his skills through re-training. For foreign investors, this has been one of the most notable reasons  they prefer to establish a foothold in India.

Investments in IT

Apart from being a call center hub, India has also been regarded as one of the world’s most important tech hubs, standing side by side with Silicon Valley. Recent forays into the IT industry has introduced several innovations that have also impacted other industries as well. Call centers are not exempted from these disruptions since they are currently reaping the benefits of updated technologies and infrastructure.

Also Read: ‘WhatsApp Business’ Now Available On Android In India

Cloud networking is also a great way of lessening the work burden. Pizabay
Investment in IT and Infrastructure is increasing the number of call centers in India. Pixabay

There are still a lot of reasons that can very well define the successes of the Indian call center industry. What’s important is that the industry enjoys a large share of the global call center pie, providing employment and driving growth for the years to come.