Vrindavan’s premier English-language seminar on Vaishnavism, the annual Rupa Goswami Conference on Vaishnavism will be held at the Gopinath Bhavan in Vrindavan on August 27 and 28.
The seminar on Vaishnavism has been held for over two decades now by the Rupa Sanatan Gaudiya Math, under the guidance of BV Narayana Maharaja, and has attracted the participation of a distinguished assembly of scholars, theologians, devotees and disciples.
“Ten years ago, Srila Maharaja began morning sessions and they continue gloriously till date at the Gopinath Bhavan, attracting people from all over the globe”, says Krishna Chaitanya Das, a Hare-Krishna devotee.
Sri Rupa Goswami was the chief of the six goswamis of Vrindavan, the direct disciples of the 16th century saint. The theology of Gaudiya Vaishnavism has been elaborated beautifully by Rupa Goswami through his poems, songs, dramas and other writings.
Vaishnavism is one of the major branches of Hinduism and has gained much popularity due to the success of the Hare Krishna movement in the west.
The conference is a forum for scholars to speak on the glories of Rupa Goswami and various aspects of Vaishnavism related to him. By engaging in extended discussions on the ontology of Vaishnavism and devotional practice, the people are enlivened with love in their hearts, and therefore they contribute to building a more peaceful, loving society.
Hafeez Jalandhari weaved a poem that has a political and devotional angle to it
Hinduism uses sight as a way to connect with the almighty
The poet doesn’t refer to Krishna as a God but he says that Krishna represents glory and majesty of God
New Delhi, August 31, 2017: This year, Pakistan’s 70th Independence Day coincided with Hindu Festival Janmashtami (a festival to celebrate Krishna’s birth). Both were on 14th August. The famous Urdu poet Hafeez Jalandhari wrote the Qaumi Taranah, Pakistan’s national anthem. But not many people know that the same poet penned Krishn Kanhaiya, a unique Urdu poem beautifully describes the greatness of the Hindu Deity.
The idea of a Muslim poet in today’s time writing on a Hindu God raises all sorts of reactions (some of which are negative) coming from different ethnic groups in South Asia: suspicion, anger, surprise, joy or mere curiosity.
There is much more nuance to the poem Krishn Kanhaiya than what the reader thinks on its first reading. This is not just a devotional poem. Jalandhari had a political bend of mind be it him as a thinker or a writer. So, even this poem of his is not an ordinary one, it talks about Krishna’s grand persona, Hindu idol worship, what makes him different, his righteousness, describing the role he played in a Hindu epic Mahabharata.
He weaved a poem that has a political and devotional angle to it. The hidden meaning of it, when compared with Qaumi Taranah, is that it tells about the cultural politics of South Asia- in the 20th Century and has relevance today.
Decoding the poem:
In the first line of the poem, the poet says “O, onlooker”- he might be saying this as he’s talking about a Hindu God and Hinduism gives importance to seeing a God, they believe in Idol worshipping, Hindu Gods have a form, a face. Thus, Hinduism uses sight as a way to connect with the almighty. The poet wants the readers to have mental darshan of Lord Krishna by saying, onlookers. Jalandhari wants the readers to have a mental image of Krishna in their minds.
Krishna is a form of light
The opening lines of the poem are a bit abstract and don’t talk of Krishna; in further lines, the poet asks whether Krishna is a reality or a representation. He refers to him as a “form of light” and then asks is he fire or light. Referring to Krishna as light might indicate to Islamic scholars who said that “Krishna was a righteous prophet sent to the people of the subcontinent.”
Jalandhari finally gives a description of Krishna that we are more familiar with- him being a “flute player” and a “cowherd of Gokul.” The poet doesn’t refer to Krishna as a God but he says that Krishna represents glory and majesty of God.
In the tenth stanza, the poet says that – “Inside the temple / the sculptor of beauty himself / entered and became the idol”. He is talking about Idol Worship done by Hindus who pray to their God in a temple, having a belief that the deity resides in the temple in the idol itself.
Then we get a glimpse of ‘Krishna Leela’ as the poet talks of Krishna’s playing and dancing around with gopis (cowherd girls), on Yamuna river bank that he describes as a “rare happenings”. He is youthful and charming, to set the tone of the scene, phrases like “intoxicated winds” and “waves of love” are used that there was something heavenly in the atmosphere.
The sound of Krishna’s flute is described as “neither intoxication nor wine / it’s something beyond.” Such phrases transport the readers into Braj (Krishna spent his childhood and adolescence years here) and they get blissfully lost in the divine sound of Krishna’s flute.
Cheer-Haran of Draupadi and Krishna being her savior
The poem from here takes a serious transition into a serious mood. Here the poet talks of a famous Cheer-Haran (disrobing) scene from Mahabharata as the five Pandavas have lost their kingdom and Draupadi in the dice game. Draupadi is dragged into the court by Duryodhana, the eldest Kaurava, she prays to Krishna to help her.
It is said that Lord Krishna came to her rescue and due to God’s grace, her sari turned into a never ending piece of cloth as when the Kauravas tried pulling it off, more fabric draped her body and saved her dignity.
With this scene, Jalandhari begins to bring a political angle to the poem as Draupadi says, “These beloved princes (her husbands), have all become cowards!” It seems that Jalandhari is accusing India’s rulers, monarchs who behaved like cowards at the time of British Rule.
Some even argue that the poet is referring to all Indians who worked under British Rule as cowards. The poet uses the phrase “the light of India” for Krishna, this seems more of a political symbolism.
Preparations for the Mahabharata war
In the next scene, the poet takes us to the preparations for the great Mahabharata war, where he writes worryingly, “Duryodhana seems victorious.” Duryodhana (eldest kaurava) symbolizes British Rule over India which continued for a pretty long time, like the Mahabharata war.
The irony is that Kaurava army was much larger in number than Pandavas whereas Britishers were very less in number than Indians. But with Krishna’s arrival on the battlefield (from Pandavas side) and how he preached Bhagavad Gita to Arjuna, changes the anxiety and sorrow to much-needed enthusiasm: “the divine decree has been pronounced, the sword has been swung!”
This Krishna is very different from the young playful one which the poet has described earlier. Here, he symbolizes great strength and power: on his “face shines a bright gaze” also his “virtues burn enemies.” He is so powerful that when he is angry, he can shower lightning. Thus, this Krishna can easily be an icon used for anti-colonial nationalism.
After this, Jalandhari paints a picture of India suffering under colonial rule, using Vrindavan as a symbol for India. He says that once the joyful Yamuna is now silent, the waves are weak now. The gardens which were earlier beautiful are now ruined and the gopis symbolizing people of India are feeling helpless without their Krishna, their savior.
So, Jalandhari makes a personal plea to Krishna: “Oh king of India, come just once more.” He begs Krishna to return to Mathura (Mathura symbolizes India) and become the King again: “If you come, glory will come, if you come, life will come” With his plea to Krishna asking him to liberate India from British rule, Jalandhari ends his nazm.
If we compare Krishn Kanhaiya to Jalandhari’s more famous work (Pakistan’s National Anthem), we can learn a lot about the cultural politics which has influenced South Asia over the 20th century and continues to do so even today.
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Vrindavan: The 400-year-old custom of Gopinath Temple in Vrindavan seems to be fading away as hundreds of widows played Holi within the premises of the ancient shrine on Monday. The temple witnessed breaking the shackles of yet another tradition when the widows were joined by Sanskrit scholars and priests into the merrymaking, which the old women felt as a “break from their otherwise grief-stricken lives.”
The temple which was built in 1599 saw the festivity revelry marked by tears and a riot of colors when widows and young Sanskrit scholars from Varanasi and pundits from the temple together joined the celebrations, signifying the further social assimilation and acceptance of these widows.
It was for the first time that the Holi celebrations by widows in Vrindavan and Varanasi were held at the historic temple, instead of being usually held at Pagal Baba Widow Ashram.
Bindeshwar Pathak, the main organisers of the program, said, “Their participation in Holi symbolizes a break from tradition which forbids a widow from wearing coloured saree, among many other things”.
As ‘Holi hai’ echoed in the air, about 1,200 kgs of ‘gulal’ (coloured powder) and 1,500 kgs of rose and marigold petals filled the atmosphere. Abandoned by their families or having chosen a life in the ashrams voluntarily, the widows cheered and at least, for a moment forgot all their pains.
“Times have changed for the good. People no longer look at us as a curse. When I see these young children having no inhibitions in sharing their joys with women like me, I feel very happy,” said Rasia, 65, from Nepal. Having lost her husband at the young age of 17, teary-eyed Rasia told reporters that this Holi has been “the best” for her.
Smearing colours on each other’s faces, the widows danced to the tunes of traditional braj holi songs, along with a mix crowd of young scholars and temple priests.
Talking to reporters was Sanskrit scholar Shyamlesh Tewari, who also participated in the celebrations. Tewari, the director of Gandhi Vidya Sansthan, Samvadshala said, “It is time that these century-old traditions are broken and widows given the right to be happy like others.” Another scholar, Tikaram Pandey, said, “Our shastras do not say that widows should be treated differently. They have every right to live and enjoy normal lives”.
The event also witnessed cheerful participation of locals and some foreign tourists also, who played colour with the widows, some even dancing to the beats of hit Bollywood numbers.
Anooporna Sharma, another widow, said, “These celebrations are welcome temporary breaks from our otherwise grief-stricken lives.” (Inputs from Agencies)
Vrindavan: While addressing an event to mark the 500th year of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s advent in Vrindavan on Wednesday, President Pranab Mukherjee said:India’s unity is based on cultural and civilizational values inherited over centuries and nurtured carefully,
The president said that the saint preached and spread loving devotional service and congregational chanting.
He said living with diversity and finding unity in diversity had been practiced in India over centuries.
Many people wonder how it is possible for India to accommodate so much diversity within one system of administration, one constitution, and one legal jurisprudence,
The president said the answer lay in India’s civilizational values
India’s unity had been possible “because of our cultural and civilizational values. We have inherited these over the centuries and have nurtured it. It is now a part of our life”.
Mukherjee said Chaitanya Mahaprabhu preached love, equality, humanity, and harmony.
We must adopt this message of the great saint and recharge our society. We must re-transform ourself with the message of love.
The president said Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was one of the greatest saints of the Bhakti (devotional) movement.
Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu’s teachings continue to have great relevance in the contemporary world,
He was responsible for the popularity of Vaishnavism in Bengal through his ‘kirtans‘ (devotional songs), which were unparalleled in lyricism and beauty.
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu preached and spread loving devotional service and congregational chanting through personal demonstration. He propagated the cult of devotion by personally practicing it.
The president visited the Radha Raman temple and participated in a special Darshan (view) at the Gaurang Mahaprabhu temple.
He was received by Uttar Pradesh Governor Ram Naik, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav and local MP Hema Malini at the helipad.
Governor Naik said Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was above caste and sectarian beliefs.
Hema Malini added: “Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was truly a revolutionary saint who represented both Radha and Sri Krishna.
“He came from Bengal to Braj and gave a new identity to Vrindavan, discovering the ‘Leela-sthals’ of Sri Krishna and Radha.
“The original Vrindavan had been lost. It was Chaitanya Mahaprabhu who discovered all the shrines and taught the language of love through ‘Hari Nam Sankeertan‘ (chanting of Hari’s name).”