Tuesday October 16, 2018

97 Percent of 224 Million Indians who Migrated after Marriage are Women, says New Census Data

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data

0
//
103
An Indian Traditional wedding, Pixabay
Republish
Reprint

December 15, 2016: “It is not a common practice or desirable culture for a Hindu son in India to get separated from his parents on getting married at the instance of the wife, especially when the son is the only earning member in the family,” the Supreme Court (SC) noted in a October 2016 judgement, while granting a divorce to a couple from Karnataka.

“In India, generally people do not subscribe to the western thought, where, upon getting married or attaining majority, the son gets separated from the family. In normal circumstances, a wife is expected to be with the family after the marriage. Normally, without any justifiable strong reason, she would never insist that her husband should get separated from the family and live only with her.”

NewsGram brings to you latest new stories in India.

That observation is echoed in new Census data, which reveals that 97 per cent of 224 million Indians who migrated after marriage are women.

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data. That is more than the combined population of the US, Germany and Canada.

Marriage is the most common purpose of migration with 49 per cent of them (224 million) migrating for marriage, followed by moving with households (15 per cent) and work/employment (10 per cent).

Women migrate more for education but less for employment

Of 46.4 million Indians who migrated for work/employment, 7.4 million (16 per cent) were female. No more than 27 per cent of Indian women are in the labour force, the second-lowest rate of female labour-force participation in South Asia after Pakistan, IndiaSpend reported in April 2016.

Go to NewsGram and check out news related to political current issues

The labour force, however, doesn’t include women who do “unpaid care work”, which refers to all unpaid services within a household, including care of people, housework and voluntary community work.

It appears that more females migrate for business than for employment. Of 4.3 million Indians migrating for business, 1.1 million (26 per cent) were female; 14 per cent of business establishments in India are run by female entrepreneurs, IndiaSpend reported in May 2016.

Females account for 40 per cent of Indians who migrate for education, reflecting a nationwide male dominance: As many as 1,403 females have never attended any educational institution for every 1,000 males who have not, IndiaSpend reported in November 2015.

78 per cent of rural female migrants move for marriage

As many as 228 million females from rural areas are migrants, of which 179 million (78 per cent) migrated for marriage; the figure was 46 per cent for females from urban areas.

Look for latest news from India in NewsGram.

Women from urban areas, on average, marry more than two years later than their rural counterparts, IndiaSpend reported in May 2015.

The median age at marriage among urban women was 18.8 years, according to the National Family Health Survey 2005-06, compared with 16.4 years among rural women. A quarter of all women aged 15 to 49 in urban areas have never been married, compared with 17 per cent of rural women. (IANS)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2016 NewsGram

Next Story

India Gets A Win, Supreme Court Decriminalizes Homosexuality

In December 2013, a Supreme Court bench said that it was for the legislature to look into desirability of deleting section 377 of IPC.

0
Homosexuality, India
SC decriminalises homosexuality, victory for gay rights. Pixabay

 In a historic verdict, the Supreme Court on Thursday decriminalised homosexuality between consenting adults by declaring Section 377, the penal provision which criminalised gay sex, as “manifestly arbitrary”.

In separate but unanimous verdicts, a five-judge Constitution Bench of Chief Justice Dipak Misra, Justice Rohinton Nariman, Justice A.M. Khanwilkar, Justice D.Y. Chandrachud and Justice Indu Malhotra partially struck down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as unconstitutional.

The bench said it is no longer an offence for LGBTIQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender/transsexual, intersex and queer/questioning) community to engage in consensual sex between two adults in private.

Reading out the judgment, Chief Justice Misra said attitudes and mentality have to change to accept others’ identity and accept what they are, and not what they should be.

Homosexuality, India
LGBTIQ people have a right to live unshackled from the shadow.
Pixabay

“It is the constitutional and not social morality which will prevail,” said the court.

The verdict sparked celebrations in the LGBTIQ community across India even as the judgment was being read out. Many of the community members who had assembled outside the apex court jumped in joy and distributed sweets.

Chief Justice Misra said consensual sex between adults in a private space, which is not harmful to women or children, cannot be denied as it is a matter of individual choice.

Section 377 will not apply to consensual same-sex acts between homosexuals, heterosexuals, lesbians, the court said, clarifying that sexual act without consent and bestiality will continue to be an offence under section 377.

“An individual has full liberty over his or her body and his or her sexual orientation is a matter of one’s choice,” said the Chief Justice.

“Time to bid adieu to prejudicial perceptions deeply ingrained in social mindset. Time to empower LGBTIQ community against discrimination. They should be allowed to make their choices,” he added.

Homosexuality, India
In separate but unanimous verdicts, a five-judge Constitution Bench struck down Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) as unconstitutional. Pixabay

 

In a concurring judgement, Justice Nariman said homosexuality is “not a mental disorder or disease”.

He said the LGBTIQ community has an equal right to live with dignity and are entitled to equal protection of law. He directed the Centre to give wide publicity to this judgment to remove the stigma attached to homosexuality.

Justice Chandrachud said to deny the LGBTIQ community their right to sexual orientation is a denial of their citizenship and a violation of their privacy.

“They cannot be pushed into obscurity by an oppressive colonial legislation… Sexual minorities in India have lived in fear, hiding as second class citizens,” said Justice Chandrachud, adding “the state has no business to intrude on such matters”.

Justice Indu Malhotra said that history owes an apology to the LGBTIQ community for all that they have suffered on account of the ignorance of the majority about homosexuality.

“LGBTIQ people have a right to live unshackled from the shadow,” she said.

Homosexuality, India
People Participated in Hundreds for the Gay Pride Parade Held In Delhi.

The Supreme Court verdict, which overruled its own earlier judgment, assumes significance as in the earlier round of litigation in 2013, the top court had reversed a Delhi High Court ruling decriminalising homosexuality.

The Delhi High Court bench, headed by then Chief Justice A.P. Shah, had in July 2009 legalised homosexual acts between consenting adults by overturning the 149-year-old law — finding it unconstitutional and a hurdle in the fight against HIV/AIDS.

In December 2013, a Supreme Court bench comprising Justice G.S. Singhvi and Justice S.J. Mukhopadhaya in the Suresh Kumar Koushal and another vs Naz Foundation and others case, had set aside the high court’s judgment and said that it was for the legislature to look into desirability of deleting section 377 of IPC.

The matter was subsequently resurrected in July 2016, when a fresh petition was filed by members of the LGBTIQ community — dancer N.S. Johar, journalist Sunil Mehra, chef Ritu Dalmia, hotelier Aman Nath and business executive Ayesha Kapur — which was then marked to the Constitution Bench by a Division Bench.

Homosexuality, India
Gaydo, India’s first LGBTQ Radio Show

Also Read: Gaydio: India’s First LGBTQ Radio Show Will Help People Understand Gender and Sexuality in a Better Manner

The reference was made on the basis of submission that it was the first time that individuals directly affected by the provision were approaching the court.

Among the petitioners are a batch of current and former students of Indian Institutes of Technology. Claiming to represent more than 350 LGBTIQ alumni, students, staff and faculty from the IITs, the petitioners said that the existence of Section 377 had caused them “mental trauma and illnesses, such as clinical depression and anxiety and relegated some of them to second-class citizenship”. (IANS)