Sunday February 24, 2019

97 Percent of 224 Million Indians who Migrated after Marriage are Women, says New Census Data

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data

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An Indian Traditional wedding, Pixabay

December 15, 2016: “It is not a common practice or desirable culture for a Hindu son in India to get separated from his parents on getting married at the instance of the wife, especially when the son is the only earning member in the family,” the Supreme Court (SC) noted in a October 2016 judgement, while granting a divorce to a couple from Karnataka.

“In India, generally people do not subscribe to the western thought, where, upon getting married or attaining majority, the son gets separated from the family. In normal circumstances, a wife is expected to be with the family after the marriage. Normally, without any justifiable strong reason, she would never insist that her husband should get separated from the family and live only with her.”

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That observation is echoed in new Census data, which reveals that 97 per cent of 224 million Indians who migrated after marriage are women.

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data. That is more than the combined population of the US, Germany and Canada.

Marriage is the most common purpose of migration with 49 per cent of them (224 million) migrating for marriage, followed by moving with households (15 per cent) and work/employment (10 per cent).

Women migrate more for education but less for employment

Of 46.4 million Indians who migrated for work/employment, 7.4 million (16 per cent) were female. No more than 27 per cent of Indian women are in the labour force, the second-lowest rate of female labour-force participation in South Asia after Pakistan, IndiaSpend reported in April 2016.

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The labour force, however, doesn’t include women who do “unpaid care work”, which refers to all unpaid services within a household, including care of people, housework and voluntary community work.

It appears that more females migrate for business than for employment. Of 4.3 million Indians migrating for business, 1.1 million (26 per cent) were female; 14 per cent of business establishments in India are run by female entrepreneurs, IndiaSpend reported in May 2016.

Females account for 40 per cent of Indians who migrate for education, reflecting a nationwide male dominance: As many as 1,403 females have never attended any educational institution for every 1,000 males who have not, IndiaSpend reported in November 2015.

78 per cent of rural female migrants move for marriage

As many as 228 million females from rural areas are migrants, of which 179 million (78 per cent) migrated for marriage; the figure was 46 per cent for females from urban areas.

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Women from urban areas, on average, marry more than two years later than their rural counterparts, IndiaSpend reported in May 2015.

The median age at marriage among urban women was 18.8 years, according to the National Family Health Survey 2005-06, compared with 16.4 years among rural women. A quarter of all women aged 15 to 49 in urban areas have never been married, compared with 17 per cent of rural women. (IANS)

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Your Genes Determine How Successful Your Married Life Is

They are relevant to how partners provide and receive support from each other.

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They are relevant to how partners provide and receive support from each other. Pixabay

Do you think you could lead a happy married life? The answer is in your genes, a new study has said.

Although prior research has hinted that marital quality is, at least partially, impacted by genetic factors, and that oxytocin may be relevant to social support, according to recent studies, variation on specific genes related to oxytocin functioning impact overall marital quality, in part.

They are relevant to how partners provide and receive support from each other.

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Husbands with a particular genotype were less satisfied with the support they were provided from their wives which suggested that it was also associated with being less satisfied with their marriage, noted Mattson. Pixabay

The study evaluated whether different genotypes – possible genetic combinations of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR)- influenced how spouses support one another, which is a key determinant of overall marital quality.

OXTR was targeted because it is related to the regulation and release of oxytocin.

“Genes matter when it comes to the quality of marriage, because genes are relevant to who we are as individuals, and characteristics of the individual can impact the marriage,” said Richard Mattson, Associate Professor from the Binghamton University in the US.

For the study, the team included nearly 100 couples.

Each partner was asked individually to come up with an issue to discuss something they identify as their most salient personal problem that was not related to their partner or partner’s family such as problems at work.

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Genes matter when it comes to the quality of marriage, because genes are relevant to who we are as individuals, and characteristics of the individual can impact the marriage,” said Richard Mattson, Associate Professor from the Binghamton University in the US. Pixabay

“We found that variation at two particular locations on OXTR impacted the observed behaviours of both husbands and wives, and that differences in behaviour across couples had small but cumulative effects on overall evaluations of support, and thus marital quality in general,” added Mattson, published in the Journal of Family Psychology.

However, what emerged as most relevant to overall marital quality for both partners was genotypic variation among husbands at a specific location on OXTR.

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Husbands with a particular genotype were less satisfied with the support they were provided from their wives which suggested that it was also associated with being less satisfied with their marriage, noted Mattson.

The researchers hope their findings provide the foundation for replication and additional study of OXTR as an enduring determinant of marital functioning. (IANS)