Saturday November 23, 2019

97 Percent of 224 Million Indians who Migrated after Marriage are Women, says New Census Data

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data

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An Indian Traditional wedding, Pixabay

December 15, 2016: “It is not a common practice or desirable culture for a Hindu son in India to get separated from his parents on getting married at the instance of the wife, especially when the son is the only earning member in the family,” the Supreme Court (SC) noted in a October 2016 judgement, while granting a divorce to a couple from Karnataka.

“In India, generally people do not subscribe to the western thought, where, upon getting married or attaining majority, the son gets separated from the family. In normal circumstances, a wife is expected to be with the family after the marriage. Normally, without any justifiable strong reason, she would never insist that her husband should get separated from the family and live only with her.”

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That observation is echoed in new Census data, which reveals that 97 per cent of 224 million Indians who migrated after marriage are women.

Four of every 10 Indians (453 million) are migrants, according to the Census data. That is more than the combined population of the US, Germany and Canada.

Marriage is the most common purpose of migration with 49 per cent of them (224 million) migrating for marriage, followed by moving with households (15 per cent) and work/employment (10 per cent).

Women migrate more for education but less for employment

Of 46.4 million Indians who migrated for work/employment, 7.4 million (16 per cent) were female. No more than 27 per cent of Indian women are in the labour force, the second-lowest rate of female labour-force participation in South Asia after Pakistan, IndiaSpend reported in April 2016.

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The labour force, however, doesn’t include women who do “unpaid care work”, which refers to all unpaid services within a household, including care of people, housework and voluntary community work.

It appears that more females migrate for business than for employment. Of 4.3 million Indians migrating for business, 1.1 million (26 per cent) were female; 14 per cent of business establishments in India are run by female entrepreneurs, IndiaSpend reported in May 2016.

Females account for 40 per cent of Indians who migrate for education, reflecting a nationwide male dominance: As many as 1,403 females have never attended any educational institution for every 1,000 males who have not, IndiaSpend reported in November 2015.

78 per cent of rural female migrants move for marriage

As many as 228 million females from rural areas are migrants, of which 179 million (78 per cent) migrated for marriage; the figure was 46 per cent for females from urban areas.

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Women from urban areas, on average, marry more than two years later than their rural counterparts, IndiaSpend reported in May 2015.

The median age at marriage among urban women was 18.8 years, according to the National Family Health Survey 2005-06, compared with 16.4 years among rural women. A quarter of all women aged 15 to 49 in urban areas have never been married, compared with 17 per cent of rural women. (IANS)

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Pollution Severe In Delhi In Spite Of Odd-Even Scheme: SC

SC says despite odd-even scheme, pollution in Delhi became severe

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Odd-Even scheme
In spite of Odd-Even vehicle rationing scheme, pollution has reached a severe level. Pixabay

The Supreme Court on Friday said in spite of Odd-Even vehicle rationing scheme, pollution has reached a severe level, and again called the Chief Secretaries of Delhi, Punjab, Harayana and Uttar Pradesh, to report on measures taken to curb air pollution particularly related to stubble burning.

A bench headed by Justice Arun Mishra said, “Do not give exemption to two-wheelers, and it will work.”

During the hearing, the judges scrutinized the Odd-Even scheme of the Delhi government in respect of air quality index data gathered in the past two years. The judges queried the Delhi government counsel, senior advocate Mukul Rohtagi, what purpose the scheme served by keeping out cars which contribute mere three per cent of the total pollution.

Odd-even scheme in Delhi
The court observed the data presented by the authorities suggest the Odd-Even scheme had hardly any effect on improving air quality. Pixabay

The court observed that Delhi’s local pollution is a major problem, if stubble burning which contributes 40 per cent is kept out.

“According to the authorities, stubble burning has reduced to somewhere near five per cent now…we are concerned about Delhi’s local air pollution. What is the government doing?”

The court observed the data presented by the authorities suggest the Odd-Eeven scheme had hardly any effect on improving air quality. “Question is what are you gaining by this scheme?” observed the court.

Also Read- Pollution Problem in Delhi Likely to Influence Upcoming Delhi Assembly Polls

Further commenting on the social aspect of the Odd-Even scheme, the court said “Odd-Even will only affect the lower middle class but not the affluent ones since they have multiple cars… Odd-Even isn’t a solution, but public transport could be. But nothing has been done about that”, said the court.

The hearing on the matter will continue on November 25. (IANS)