Saturday October 20, 2018

After Egypt, Pakistan stands Second in the world with maximum Hepatitis infected Patients

The symptoms include- fatigue, body ache, decreased appetite and much more. Hepatitis generally spreads through blood transfusion, sexual acts and also virus transmission

Representational Image. Wikimedia
  • 400 million people in all are suffering from Hepatitis across the globe
  • Pakistan is the 2nd most Hepatitis affected country after Egypt
  • There are 5 types of Viral Hepatitis: A, B, C, D, E
  • WHO aims at eliminating this by 90 percent till 2030

Karachi, Sept 15, 2016: Pakistan is facing a tough time dealing with the number of infected people of Hepatitis in the country. 400 million people in total are suffering from this deadly disease across the globe and many of them are not even aware of this.

A study reveals that a million and a half people died of Hepatitis in 2013. WHO aims at eliminating 90% of this disease by 2030.

Pakistan stands 2nd in the world after Egypt in the number of Hepatitis patients. According to Dr. Inayat Adil- a Hepatitis expert from Pakistan- 5 % of Pakistani population suffers from Chronic Hepatitis C infection.

Hepatitis is a  liver disease. The medication for this is available only in centralised hospitals of Pakistan and is quite costly. Many middle-class patients find it difficult in approaching such branded hospitals instead of their local heath care centers. Also, the cost of medication being so high for Hepatitis, there are a number of people who cannot manage to afford the treatment. Local health care centers lack the required drugs.


Karachi alone stands for 1 million patients. Many times, people are not even aware of being infected with the disease and neglect it. And rest of the times the cost acts as a  major hindrance in their intention of getting treated, mentioned a VOA report.

The symptoms include- fatigue, body ache, decreased appetite and much more. Hepatitis generally spreads through blood transfusion, sexual acts and also virus transmission.

Treatment options vary depending upon what kind of viral hepatitis it is. For example, hepatitis B has an effective vaccine, but hepatitis C does not have a vaccine against it.

Medicines Sans Frontieres is an institution in Pakistan, that came into existence from April 2015 and has been successful in treating a lot of people in Karachi. This institute is an initiative to give people an approachable treatment of Hepatitis and is also involved in making people aware of the disease. It is in the local and mostly semi-urban areas of Karachi due to the fact that such areas lack cleanliness, hygiene, resources and basic sanitation facilities.

– by Ayushi Gaur of Newsgram

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  • Ayushi Gaur


  • Antara

    Hepatitis keeps spreading at a shocking rate!

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Neanderthal Genes Helped Early Human Beings to Fight Flu, Hepatitis

The team examined a list of more than 4,500 genes in modern humans that are known to interact in some way with viruses

Visitors take pictures of models representing Flores, human and Neanderthal women in the "Musee des Confluences," a new science and anthropology museum in Lyon, central France, Dec. 18, 2014. Neanderthals had a long run in Europe, but disappeared about 40,000 years ago after modern humans showed up. (VOA)

Inter-breeding with Neanderthal gave early human beings the ability to fend off dangerous diseases similar to flu and hepatitis, says a research.

The findings, led by researchers from the Universities of Arizona and Stanford, showed that while Neanderthal became extinct about 40,000 years ago, many modern Europeans and Asians today carry about 2 per cent of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes.

Early humans inherited 152 genes from Neanderthal that helped them fight off modern day HIV, influenza A and hepatitis C whenever they encountered them.

“It’s not a stretch to imagine that when modern humans met up with Neanderthals, they infected each other with pathogens that came from their respective environments,” said lead author David Enard, Assistant Professor in ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Arizona.

Neanderthal model
Neanderthal model. Reconstruction of a Neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis) based on the La Chapelle-aux-Saints fossils. Neanderthals inhabited Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago. They did not use complex tools but had mastery of fire and built shelters. It is thought that they had language and a complex social structure, living in small family groups and hunting for food. It is not known why Neanderthals became extinct, but one theory is that they were outcompeted by modern humans (Homo sapiens). Reconstruction by Elisabeth Daynes of the Daynes Studio, Paris, France.

“By inter-breeding with each other, they also passed along genetic adaptations to cope with some of those pathogens,” he added.

According to studies, modern humans began moving out of Africa and into Eurasia about 70,000 years ago.

When they arrived, they met up with Neanderthals who, along with their own ancestors, had been adapting to that geographic area for hundreds of thousands of years.

The Eurasian environment shaped Neanderthals’ evolution, including the development of adaptations to viruses and other pathogens that were present there but not in Africa.

In the study, published in the journal Cell, the team showed that the genetic defences that Neanderthals passed to humans were against RNA viruses, which encode their genes with RNA, a molecule that is chemically similar to DNA.

Neanderthal man. Flickr

The team examined a list of more than 4,500 genes in modern humans that are known to interact in some way with viruses.

Enard then checked his list against a database of sequenced Neanderthal DNA and identified 152 fragments of those genes from modern humans that were also present in Neanderthals.

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In addition, the findings also demonstrate that it is possible to comb through a species’ genome and find evidence of ancient diseases that once afflicted it, even when the viruses responsible for those diseases are long gone.

This technique would work especially well for RNA viruses, whose RNA-based genomes are more frail than their DNA counterparts, Enard noted. (IANS)