Monday February 18, 2019

Anti-smoking drug from nicotine-eating bacteria: Study

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New York: A bacterium that consumes nicotine may help scientists develop a powerful anti-smoking drug, says a study. 

The researchers found that the bacterial enzyme can be recreated in lab settings and possesses a number of promising characteristics for drug development.

“Our research is in the early phase of drug development process, but the study tells us the enzyme has the right properties to eventually become a successful therapeutic,” said one of the researchers Kim Janda, professor of chemistry at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) in California.

The new research offers a possible alternative to current smoking cessation aids, which are shown to fail in at least 80 to 90 percent of smokers.

The idea behind an enzyme therapy would be to seek out and destroy nicotine before it reaches the brain — depriving a person of the “reward” of nicotine that can trigger relapse into smoking.

For more than 30 years, Janda and his colleagues have struggled to create such an enzyme in the lab, but they recently ran across a potential enzyme found in nature — NicA2 from the bacteria known as Pseudomonas putida.

It turns out this bacterium — originally isolated from soil in a tobacco field — consumes nicotine as its sole source of carbon and nitrogen.

In the new study, the researchers characterized the bacterial enzyme responsible for nicotine degradation and tested its potential usefulness as a therapeutic.

Importantly, the researchers detected no toxic metabolites produced when the enzyme degraded nicotine in the lab.

“The enzyme is also relatively stable in serum, which is important for a therapeutic candidate,” study first author Song Xue, graduate student at TSRI, said.

The study was published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society.

(IANS)

 

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Novel Drug May Shorten Treatment Duration For Tuberculosis

Despite significant progress in combating tuberculosis, it remains the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, he said

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A new experimental antibiotic for tuberculosis (TB) has been shown to be more effective against TB than Isoniazid, a decades old drug which is currently one of the standard treatment for the disease, finds a study on mice.

The new drug, called AN12855, has several advantages over Isoniazid as Isoniazid requires conversion to its active form by a Mycobacterial enzyme, KatG, in order to kill the pathogen, which creates some problems.

In some M. tuberculosis, KatG is nonfunctional. That does not make M. tuberculosis any less pathogenic, but it prevents the drug from working. Consequently, this creates an easy avenue for the development of drug resistance.

In the study, the new drug showed a much lower tendency to develop resistance, and it remains in the tissues where the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria reside for longer, killing them more effectively.

WHO will start working towards ending Tuberculosis
Dr. Simon Angelo (L) examines Iman Steven suffering from tuberculosis, held by her mother (R) at the hospital of Doctors Without Borders (MSF), June 15, 2016, at the Protection of Civilians (PoC) site in Malakal, South Sudan. VOA

The goal of TB drug development programmes is to develop universal treatment regimens that will shorten and simplify TB treatment in patients, which typically takes at least six months, and sometimes more than a year, said lead author Gregory T. Robertson, Assistant Professor at the Colorado State University in Fort Collins in the US.

For the study, the researchers used a new TB mouse model that develops these M. tuberculosis-containing granulomas to compare Isoniazid and AN12855.

Granuloma refers to a mass of granulation tissue, typically produced in response to infection, inflammation, or the presence of a foreign substance.

“We discovered that the drugs differed dramatically with respect to their abilities to kill the pathogen in highly diseased tissues,” said Robertson.

Tuberculosis
New TB drug may shorten treatment duration: Study. IANS

AN12855 proved more effective, “without selecting for appreciable drug resistance”, added Robertson in the study published in the journal Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy.

Despite significant progress in combating tuberculosis, it remains the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, he said.

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“Multidrug resistance is a further challenge to the mission to control TB globally. Collectively, our group has pioneered the use of new TB mouse efficacy models to help advance innovative new therapies designed to shorten the length of TB treatment.” (IANS)