Saturday May 25, 2019

Anti-stress hormone linked to breast cancer risk

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Representational image.

London: Women with low levels of an anti-stress hormone have an increased risk of getting breast cancer, says a new study.

The study focused on a hormone which circulates freely in the blood, enkephalin, with pain- and anxiety-reducing properties. Enkephalin also reinforces the immune system by directly affecting immune cells. Credits: https://www.google.co.in/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CAYQjB1qFQoTCPiMsv7f3MYCFcUrpgodVqIA4Q&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.choctawnation.com%2Fnews-room%2Fpress-room%2Fmedia-releases%2Fchoctaw-bike-team-encourages-breast-cancer-awareness%2F&ei=CB6mVfjoO8XXmAXWxIKIDg&bvm=bv.97653015,d.eXY&psig=AFQjCNEi8zFFmDRriJ0iC8kBpejk9sc6Iw&ust=1437035987055497

“Among women with the lowest levels of the hormone, the risk of breast cancer was more than three times that of the women with the highest levels of the hormone. This is one of the strongest correlations between cancer risk and a freely circulating biomarker ever described,” said Olle Melander, professor at Lund University, Sweden.

The study that appeared in the Journal of Clinical Oncology, was based on blood samples taken from over 1,900 women. The average age of the women studied was 57. The women were followed up with regard to breast cancer for an average period of 15 years.

The researchers said geographical location and age, in spite of the adjustments in the study, may be significant. After further studies, the results will facilitate prevention and early detection of breast cancer.

For those with an increased risk of breast cancer, potential preventive treatments could take the form of lifestyle interventions to reduce stress and new drugs.

“Our immediate plan is to investigate how to affect the level of enkephalin in healthy individuals. We will do this primarily in a study with a smaller number of women. We are also interested in the hormone’s role in other cancers,” said co-author Mattias Belting and professor at Lund University, Sweden.

( IANS)

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Novel AI Method Predicts Future Risk of Breast Cancer

The advantages held across different subgroups of women, said the study published in the journal Radiology

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Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

Researchers have developed a new tool with advanced artificial intelligence (AI) methods to predict a woman’s future risk of breast cancer.

For the study, the researchers used almost 90,000 full-resolution screening mammograms from about 40,000 women to train, validate and test the deep learning model.

“There’s much more information in a mammogram than just the four categories of breast density, “said study lead author Adam Yala from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US.

“By using the deep learning model, we learn subtle cues that are indicative of future cancer,” Yala added.

The research team recently compared three different risk assessment approaches. The first model relied on traditional risk factors, the second on deep learning that used the mammogram alone, and the third on a hybrid approach that incorporated both the mammogram and traditional risk factors into the deep learning model.

Cancer patient
Cancer patient.

The deep learning models yielded substantially improved risk discrimination over the Tyrer-Cuzick model, a current clinical standard that uses breast density in factoring risk.

When comparing the hybrid deep learning model against breast density, the researchers found that patients with non-dense breasts and model-assessed high risk had 3.9 times the cancer incidence of patients with dense breasts and model-assessed low risk.

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The advantages held across different subgroups of women, said the study published in the journal Radiology.

“Unlike traditional models, our deep learning model performs equally well across diverse races, ages and family histories,” said Regina Barzilay, Professor at MIT. (IANS)