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“Be your own critic,” Gulzar advises aspiring writers at ‘Jashn-e-rekhta’

"There is a pain of the society, of a career and money. I have to face several other issues, so don't expect from me the kind of love we shared earlier. Now, I don't have time to sit and text you anymore," he recited

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Gulzar
Gulzar file photo, Courtesy: wikimedia commons

New Delhi, Feb 18: On Friday, renowned Indian lyricist Gulzar advised budding Indian writers to be “their own critic”. He advised one can do this by imitating Mirza Ghalib’s practice of editing his own works.

He emphasised on ‘self-contemplation’ and ‘self-introspection’ for the betterment of one’s work, while speaking in a session titled “Hum Sooratgaar Kuch Khwaabon Ke”.

“Ghalib used to edit his own poems and often reject the works he did not like. It is important for poets and writers today to know their shortcomings, and be able to edit their own work as well as reject them if they are not up to their standards,” Gulzar said at the ongoing Urdu festival ‘Jashn-e-Rekhta’.

While conversing with renowned Urdu and Hindi screenwriter Javed Siddique, Gulzar reiterated the vitality and relevance of writers like Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Mir Taqi Mir, who were brought novelty in Urdu poetry.

Gulzar asserted that poetry is beyond manifesting grief, it should also touch the realm of “social consciousness”, while accentuating the contribution and vitality of Mir’s poetry in India’s freedom struggle.

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In the session, Gulzar recited one of Faiz’s couplets – ‘Maqaam Faiz koi raah me jacha hi nahi, jo ku-e-yaar se nikle to su-e-daar chale’, which losely translates to ‘No destination en route caught my fancy, as I left my beloved’s house, I went straight to the gallows’.

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Later, the octogenarian writer took a dig on how love is expressed through messages and chats in the smartphone era, as he was asked to explain the meaning of another couplet ”Mujh se pehle si mohabbat mere mehboob na maang”,  by path – breaking poet Faiz Ahmed.

“There is a pain of the society, of a career and money. I have to face several other issues, so don’t expect from me the kind of love we shared earlier. Now, I don’t have time to sit and text you anymore,” he recited.

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– prepared by Sabhyata Badhwar of NewsGram. Twitter:@SabbyDarkhorse

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10 Tips How Do You Write A Literature Review For A Research Paper

The literature review chapter is primarily meant to put your ideas into a scholarly context. It helps you appreciate that other writers and scholars have researched ideas similar to yours

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Literature, Study, Research Paper, education
A historical context to literature review ascertains that you are not the pioneer in the area and therefore appreciates the contributions by other researchers. Pixabay

The literature review chapter is primarily meant to put your ideas into a scholarly context. It helps you appreciate that other writers and scholars have researched ideas similar to your. Get professional research helpers to assist in completing your paper.

Completing the literature review section means that you make huge strides in drafting your
essay. Here are ten tips to make the literature review section easy to complete.

1. Give the old materials a new interpretation. The interpretation is in light of new
evidence that you have unearthed in the course of reading other books and academic
articles. The new definition also arises from your original ideas that you are exploring in
the paper. The interpretation helps you to steer the sector into a new direction.

2. Show where the new and old ideas merge. Academic writing is not only about
developing new ideas. It helps to renew the old thoughts and expand their scope.
Researchers in the past could have limited tools and resources such that they did not go
long enough. Use the available information to broaden the scope and tie loose ends that
could be hanging even today.

3. Trace how far the debate or idea has come so far. A historical context to literature
review ascertains that you are not the pioneer in the area and therefore appreciates the
contributions by other researchers. By creating a foundation in your paper, you help the reader to understand where you are at the moment and therefore justify your
arguments.

4. Use the section to highlight your position and isolate research work that is relevant to
your ideas. The world of research is alive to the fact that there are always opposing
ideas to each position taken. If these opposing ideas are not highlighted and
disqualified, they may weaken your assertion. The literature review section gives you a
chance to recognize that other scholars have differing opinions but move forth also to
show that you have supporters on your side.

5. The best literature review chapter must appreciate the existence of opposing views. It is
insincere for a scholar to assume that everyone will support your idea. Even when the
support is available, it comes with conditions and depends on the information available.
Highlight what the opposition is saying about your idea and show why you think you are
right. Strengthen the points by quoting other scholars who share your point of view. It
shows that you are not isolated in the scholarly world.

6. Use the literature review to point at areas where researchers differ or error, especially
in their approach to the subject that you are about to address. The reason you are
researching on the same issue is a deficit in available information. In other cases, you
are attempting to find a solution to a problem that remains unresolved. Highlight the
points of divergence and convergence for researchers. It justifies your work and shows
the trajectory that you would like to adopt.

Literature, Study, Research Paper, education
Use samples and examples to guide you when drafting your literature review section. Get
recommendations of samples or examples to use from your supervisor. Pixabay

7. Resolve conflicts arising from the divergence of ideas. Disputes are common in
scholarship because the views rely on data collected from different locations and at
varying times. Show how your perspective or invention will provide a solution that two
sides of the discussion fail to agree. You break new ground that scholars will be
interested in embracing.

8. Reveal the gaps that exist in research. It is a considerable challenge to find that you do
not have the necessary information. Highlight how far the existing literature goes into
bridging the gap and why you need more people to look at the subject. As you highlight
the shortfalls, you must appreciate the work already done. It is the sincerity expected in
the academic industry.

9. Read the actual books you quote. While completing the chapter is a requirement for
graduation, you need the knowledge for your work-life upon graduating. It is
unfortunate to have a scholar with no grasp of his area of study. In the process of
reviewing the literature, you expand your knowledge and perception of the subject at
hand. The citations made must be accurate. Do not quote any writer out of context
because it will be misleading and insincere. You attain accuracy by reading the actual
books.

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10. Pay more attention to the references. References guide a reader to the books where
you got information. If these citations and footnotes are wrong, you will mislead the
readers. Your department and supervisor indicate the referencing style expected for
each assignment. Stick to formatting rules shown in the instructions. Failure to follow
these rules attracts punitive penalties.

Use samples and examples to guide you when drafting your literature review section. Get
recommendations of samples or examples to use from your supervisor. Consult your supervisor along the way to ensure that your literature review section meets the highest expected standards.