Sunday November 19, 2017

Beef Controversy: Yajna, Madhuparka, and the use of beef


By Nithin Sridhar

An Analysis of Hindu Symbols and Practices: Part 4

The current controversy over beef consumption has again provided an opportunity for the ‘seculars’ and ‘liberals’ to mount their attack on the cow and its relevance in Hinduism. The ‘liberals’ make two major assertions regarding the issue:

  1. Cow is not considered sacred or holy in ancient Hindu scriptures.
  2. Beef consumption was widely practiced by ancient Hindus.

In the previous article, it has been shown how the assertion that the cow was not considered as sacred in ancient times is incorrect. The Hindu scriptures not only speak about cow as a mother, a bringer of fortune, and a provider of nutrition, but also perceived the cow as the very manifestation of the Divine. The cow was considered worthy of people’s love, respect, and worship due to her purity and was called as Aghnya– one who should not be killed.

Now, let’s take up the second assertion. It is often portrayed that hordes and hordes of cows were slaughtered every day for the purpose of consumption in the Vedic as well as post Vedic period.

To illustrate this, the examples of slaughter and consumption of cows during Vedic Yajnas (fire worship), in rituals related to pitrs (the spirit of ancestors) like Shraddha, in Madhuparka (the ritual feeding of the guests), and certain other rituals like marriage and cremation are quoted. It is insinuated that the sacrifice of cows in all these religious rituals and ceremonies were done for the sake of consuming beef.

Thus, it is pointed out that Ahimsa as a tenet was only in theory and not in practice, as a cow despite of being called “inviolable” was mercilessly slayed. Further, these examples are also used to justify the current practices of beef consumption by showing how they are in sync with ancient practice.

Let us now briefly examine each of these illustrations.

Meat Consumption during Yajnas

It is often alleged that thousands of animals including horses, cows, and bulls were regularly sacrificed during Yajnas and then their meat was used for consumption. It is further asserted by some modern scholars that the Yajnas were only a pretext for consuming meat. There are serious issues with these assertions.

One, most of the Yajnas were optional and were rarely performed by people. For example, out of 400 Yajnas mentioned in Vedas, only 21 Yajnas are enjoined to be performed regularly and the rest are to be performed only for fulfilling specific desires like Putrakameshti for having a child or Ashwamedha for establishing an empire.

Second, even among the 21 Yajnas prescribed to be performed regularly, none of the Yajnas that are to be performed daily, fortnightly or even once every four months contain animal sacrifices. Only seven Somayajnas (Yajnas in which Soma juice is given as oblation) and 2 Haviryajnas (Yajnas in which mainly ghee is used) include performing animal sacrifice. These Yajnas though preferably must be performed once a year, it was considered enough if one is able to arrange the enormous resources required and perform it just once in a lifetime. Hence, most people never managed to perform these Yajnas more than a few times in their entire life.


Third, there was no sacrifice of hordes and hordes of animals in these Yajnas. For example, in Pashubanda, which is a Haviyyajna, only one animal is sacrificed. In Vajapeya, which is the highest type of Yajna performed by a Brahmin, only 23 animals are sacrificed. In Ashwamedha Yajna, which was an optional Yajna performed only by few Kings, around 100 animals are sacrificed. There is no Yajna which is bigger than this.

Fourth, not everyone was entitled to perform all Yajnas. Only Aupassana was prescribed to be performed by everyone irrespective of their Varna and it did not contain animal sacrifice. Also, though the Brahmins, Kshtriyas, and Vaishyas were enjoined to perform 21 sacrifices, in practice it was only the Brahmin families that implemented.

Therefore, it is clear that most of the Yajnas were optional and were rarely ever performed, and among those that were compulsory, only in a handful of them, very few animals were sacrificed. Hence, the assertion that thousands of animals were sacrificed regularly in the Yajnas has no basis.

Cow sacrifice during Madhuparka

Madhuparka which means ‘a mixture of honey’ is a religiously prescribed procedure of receiving and honoring the guests. It is alleged that large scale cow-slaughter and subsequent beef consumption was practiced in the honor of the guests.

According to various Grihya Sutras, during the ritual of Madhuparka, the host must offer the guest following things: a seat, water to wash feet, water for Argya (as an offering) and water for Acamana (to sip). This is followed by an offering of Madhuparka (a mixture of honey and other items like curd etc.) to the guest.

After this, a cow is brought near the guest and he is asked to choose whether to sacrifice it or free it. According to some scholars, this offering of the cow is not for sacrifice, but only for giving away as a gift. This is backed by few references (for example, Apasthamba Dharma Sutras Prashna 2 Patala 4 Khanda 8.5) about the gifting of cow, which is present in scriptures itself. The gifting of cow during Madhuparka is also attested in Ramayana (Ayodhya Khanda 54.17) and Mahabharata (Udyoga Parva 89.19). In any case, the guest decides upon the fate of the cow. Considering the central role played by the cows both in the economy and religion, only few cows are likely to have been sacrificed.

It is important to note that neither is the Madhuparka offered to every guest, nor is it offered at every instance. The Madhuparka was offered only to six specific people that too, if they arrived only once in a year. The six people are: teacher, king, an officiating priest, father-in-law, friend, and a Snataka (a student who just returned from Gurukula and is ready to be married).

Therefore, it is clear that, the slaughter of cows, if they were performed during Madhuparka, was conducted only occasionally and with respect to only a few specific persons that too only when the guests explicitly chose to sacrifice the cow instead of setting it free or taking it as gift.

The case of King Rantideva and the cow slaughter

Some scholars point out that it is mentioned in the Mahabharata, that King Rantideva used to slaughter 2000 cows daily to prepare feasts for his guests. Apart from the fact that slaughtering of such a huge number of cows every day is quite impractical, if one were to study the context as well as complete details available about King Rantideva, it becomes clear that the assertions are incorrect and a result of improper translation.

The book “A review of Beef in Ancient India” published by Gita Press, which makes a detailed analysis of the issue, states that the assertion that 2000 cows were killed daily is faulty and a result of improper translation of a verse from Mahabharata that contains the words ‘Vadhyate’ and ‘Mamsa’. Though, usually these are translated as ‘were killed’ and ‘meat’ respectively, in the context they mean ‘were tied’ and ‘a liquid sweet preparation (Payasam)’ respectively.

The book concludes: “The 2000 cows were actually tied to the pegs at the kitchen of King Rantideva, so that milk from them could be used to prepare food for the guests. This is supplemented by the fact that Mahabharata itself lists King Rantideva among those who are not addicted to meat-eating.”

Thus, it is quite clear that King Rantideva never slaughtered cows to feed guests, but only used their milk for the purpose. Even if we were to accept that he indeed slaughtered cows, then we must accept that the actual number of cows killed would have been only a handful as 2000 dead cows a day adds up to 7,30,000 dead cows a year, which is highly impractical.

Cow sacrifice during Shraddha and Vivaha

Cows are also said to have been sacrificed during Shraddha ceremony wherein the spirits of ancestors are satiated and during marriage. There is a difference in opinion among scholars regarding whether there was any real sacrifice of animals or only a metaphoric mention about them in the scriptures. Also, there is a mention of gifting of cows during marriages just like Madhuparka (Apathamba Grihya Sutra 1.3).

Even if we were to assume that the cows were indeed sacrificed during such ceremonies, it is quite obvious that no person performed these ceremonies every other day.

Therefore, it is quite clear that neither the rituals and ceremonies like Yajnas (had involved the sacrifice of animals including cow and bull), Madhuparka, Shraddha, or marriages were performed at quick intervals, nor were hordes and hordes of cows and bulls slaughtered in them.

Was Beef consumption sole purpose behind cow-sacrifice in various rituals?

It has been alleged that Hindu ancestors used various Yajnas and other rituals as a pretext for consuming beef. It is further stated that, the priests, etc. enjoyed a full feast of beef after sacrificing the cows and bulls in the Yajnas, etc.

Photo: The Hindu
Photo: The Hindu

This assertion is nothing but turning a blind eye towards the plain fact that each Hindu ritual has a specific purpose and end goal that is clearly made known at the beginning of the ritual itself. The Yajnas serve the purpose of harmonizing various cosmic forces. It further helps a person to worship various deities, ancestors, and other forces of nature. The performance of Yajnas not only bring wealth and spiritual merit to the performer, but also causes welfare of the society. Further, various Yajnas have specific purposes as well. For example, Pakayajnas are exclusively related to family, Putrakameshti helps to conceive a child, etc.

Similarly, if one examines the mantras associated with Madhuparka ceremony, one realizes that it is built around the concept of Atithi devo bhava– the guests are God. The offering of seats, water, a mixture of honey, and even sacrifices of cow runs parallel to the offerings given in a Yajna. The primary purpose here is serving the guests as God itself. On the other hand, Shraddhas are the ceremonies performed for the well being and satiation of the Pitrs– the spirits of our forefathers.

This clearly establishes that the sole purpose of these rituals was religious upliftment and spiritual welfare and they had nothing to do with beef consumption.

This is further augmented by the fact that, the cow meat consumed as Prasada (consecrated food left after offering in a ritual) during such rituals is of very small quantity and they are eaten without a care for the taste. This is especially true in the case of Yajnas.

Regarding this, Kanchi Shankaracharya, late Sri Chandrashekarendra Saraswati, writes: It is totally false to state that Brahmins performed sacrifices only to satisfy their appetite for meat and that the talk of pleasing the deities was only a pretext. There are rules regarding the meat to be carved out from a sacrificial animal, the part of the body from which it is to be taken and the quantity each rtvik can partake of as prasada (idavatarana). This is not more than the size of a pigeon-pea and it is to be swallowed without anything added to taste.”

Another point that must be noted, is we find explicit instructions in the scriptures regarding what occasions the animals including cows can be sacrificed. Manu Smriti (5.41) says that animals can be killed only for the purpose of Madhuparka, in Yajnas, and in rituals related to ancestors, and in no other occasion and for no other reason. Apathamba Grihya Sutra (1.3.9) says that cows can be sacrificed only for the sake of guests (i.e. Madhuparka), for ancestors, and in marriages.

These clearly establish that cows were not to be sacrificed for any other purpose, especially not for the sake of satiating one’s taste.

In fact, Manu Smriti (Chapter 5, Verses 33, 34, 35, 38, 48, and 51) goes to the extent of saying that those who sacrifice animals for purely satiating their lust for the flesh or for any purpose other than the rituals prescribed in the scriptures, will incur great sin and undergo great suffering.

Ahimsa and use of cows in Yajna

If it be asked, how to reconcile between cows being branded as ‘inviolable’, which is an ultimate expression of Ahimsa and cows being sacrificed during Yajnas, etc.?

The answer lies in the fact that Ahimsa does not mean pacifism purely in the physical sense. Violence happens at various levels- physical, verbal, mental, and spiritual. The sacrifice of animals in Yajnas, etc. is not considered an injury because the animals derive great benefit out of it. The ritual helps them to attain heaven or get higher birth in the future (Manu Smriti 5.40, 41). Therefore, considering the spiritual benefit that far outweighs the physical injury that an animal face, the sacrifice of animals during Yajnas is not considered violence.

Even if one were to reject these spiritual benefits as metaphors and superstitions, even then it is easy to see that conducting Yajnas are not contradictory to practicing Ahimsa. Ahimsa is an ideal, but except for renunciates, no person even nears ninety percent adherence to it.

Every human action is accompanied by one or other form of violence, be it cooking food, or walking on the road, or speaking ill behind someone’s back. The scriptures have given an ideal and has created a framework wherein people slowly work towards attaining the ideal. Thus the instructions given in the scriptures take one from Himsa (injury) to Ahimsa (non-injury), from ignorance to knowledge.

This is further corroborated by the fact that though scriptures upheld Vegetarianism as an ideal, they do allow the eating of meat of certain specific animals under certain circumstances; and though Sannyasa (renunciation) is the ideal, it makes provision for Grihasta (marriage). Similarly, Yajnas are also allowed for the welfare of society. Manu Smriti (5.53) says that one who renounces consumption of meat attains spiritual benefit equal to that attained after conducting 100 Ashwamedha Yajnas.

This shows that, Ahimsa is the ideal and everyone must slowly implement this ideal in all aspects of life. But, meanwhile, one should involve in other Dharmic activities including Yajnas etc. prescribed by the scriptures even though they may involve Himsa.

Therefore, cows were indeed widely revered and were held as ‘inviolable’ by the ancient Hindus, though their sacrifice was permitted during some rituals for material and spiritual welfare of society. But, these rituals involving animal sacrifice were infrequent and hordes and hordes of cows were definitely not slaughtered, neither for rituals, nor for beef. Thus the assertion that beef consumption was widely practiced has no standing.

More under Beef Controversy:

Part 3: Hinduism and Cow

Part 5: Origins of beef consumption in India

Part 6: Beef Controversy: Beef parties and the celebration of violence

More under Hindu Symbols and Practices:

Part 1: The practice of Idol Worship

Part 2- Fallacies in Criticism of Idol Worship



  1. I would like to know where actually it is written that during Madhuparka the guest had an option to actually sacrifice the cow ?

  2. According Lord Sri Krsna,the cow sacrifice never meant killing of the cow,instead an old/diseased cow was placed in a fire sacrifice and by the chanting of mantras the cow was given a young body.So no killing was involved,indeed it was of great benefit for the cow and the society.Five thousand years ago the Brahmin community possessed great power through such mantras however with the advent of Kaliyuga their power has waned.Hence in this age such attempts are not advised.


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Sins in Hinduism: Facts, Meaning,Philosophy,Types & Atonement

Sins in hinduism
The sins in Hinduism can be washed away with devotional means. Pixabay.
  • Sin is regarded as an impurity arising in one’s body as a consequence to his own evil deeds. It is an effect that can be neutralised through various practices to lead your life into Moksha or liberation.
  • A liberated being or Jivanmukta is purified of all his sins who does not have to go through any further sins and rebirth. In order to make your soul pure and sinless, practice every deed with God’s grace.
  • The Sins in Hinduism, sinful conduct and their remedies have been referred to in Hindu Scriptures such as in Upanishads, Bhagavadgita, Yoga Sutras, Manu Smriti and Garuda Purana. 

As stated about sins in Hinduism, sin may form up with disobedience to God’s divine laws of Dharma. It may however be difficult to follow, but is considered obligatory for humans. The sins in Hinduism can be forgiven if Dharma is upholded as a service to God through self-effort and pure devotion to God.

Sins in Hinduism
Meditation is considered as the easiest from of removing sins in Hinduism. Pixabay.

What is the meaning of Sins in Hinduism?

The word Pāpam (paap) is often used to describe sins in Hinduism as mentioned in the Vedas and Hindu scriptures. Punyam (punya) is the opposite (antonym) of sin. It does not acquire an equivalent word in English since the concept of sins in Hinduism is different in western culture and Christianity.

Separating the word, ‘Pa‘ means to drink, inhale or absorb. ‘Apa‘ means water, combinedly meaning consuming or drinking impure water or poison. Pāpam also denotes evil, wicked, mischievous, destructive, inferior, corrupt and guilt.

It is believed that the sins of Hinduism manifests in the body with the impurities of worldliness (vishaya-asakti). The human body becomes subject to various poisons (visham) such as egoism, greed, ignorance, selfishness, desires and so on, which emerge with our attachments with worldly things (vishayas). These poisons of sins make the humans to take rebirths and deaths until they are removed completely. In the Hindu culture, Lord Shiva is regarded as the destroyer and the healer who gets invoked by devotees prayers and can remove or destroy such poison or sins to grant them liberation.

Sins in Hinduism
The sins in hinduism have been depicted in the scriptures. Pixabay.

What is the Philosophy of Sins in Hinduism?

The sins appear from physical, mental or oral actions, due to the impurities or poisons pertaining to Dharma and Hinduism. The poison of sin is stimulated if one harms intentionally to others or oneself by way of pain and suffering continuing the cycle of rebirth and death.

The repurcussions of sinful acts or karma are fault or mistake (aparadha), worry or anxiety (cintha), impurities or imperfections (doshas), evil intentions (dudhi), evil qualities (dhurta lakshana), immorality (adharma), demonic nature (asura sampatti), chaos or disorderliness (anrta), mental afflictions (klesha), destruction (nirtti), karmic debt (rna), sorrow (shoka), darkness or grossness (tamas) and suffering (pida). Others include: inferior birth, birth through demonic wombs, downfall into hells, increased suffering to ancestors, adversity, loss of reputation.

Sins in Hinduism
Visit Pilgrimage shrines to erase your sins in Hindusim. Pixabay.

What are the types of Sins in Hinduism?

The Dharmashastras of the Hindu scriptures denote sin as Pātaka which represents the causes of one’s downfall or destruction (patanam).The following are the three types of sins in Hinduism: Mortal Sins (Mahapatakas), Secondary Sins (Upa Patakas) and Minor Sins (Prakirna or prasangika Patakas)

The Mahapatakas

These are the gravest and darkest sins in Hinduism leading to the worst downfall of the mortals into the darkest of hells. They can neither be neutralized or washed away without suffering. Some Puranas and Vedas indicate to devote oneself purely to God to remove such sins. The Dharmashastras have stated such five gravest sins termed as the Pancha Mahapatakas. In Hinduism,the company of sinners is also not advisable as associating with sinners will lead you to the same consequences.

The Upa Patakas

These secondary sins may emerge out of minor offenses that include incompetency to perform sacrifices regularly, displeasing the Guru, selling harmful and intoxicating drinks, disbelief in God, giving false witness, making false acclaims, and performing a sacrifice for an unworthy person or unworthy cause and engaging in illicit sex.

The Prakirna Patakas

These type of sins in Hinduism form the minor offenses committed intentionally or unintentionally out of ignorance or carelessness which can be removed or washed away by performing sacrifices (prayaschitta) or by punishments and requesting forgiveness. The law books regard more than fifty minor sins in Hinduism such as selling the wife, making salt, studying forbidden Shastras, killing a woman, marrying the younger son before marrying the elder one, killing insects and other creatures, ignorance to parents, accepting gifts without performing sacrifices,adultery etc.

What are the solutions to overcome Sins?

Fines and punishments

The Dharmashastras render both corporeal and monetary punishments for various offenses or sins in Hinduism, apart from the sufferings in hell or rebirth. According to Hindu scriptures, the ancient era saw immense difference in the application of punishments from caste to caste.


The best path to deal with sins of Hinduism is to surrender yourself infront of God and seek forgiveness with your own confession of the sin committed. The king was regarded as a similar figure to God who demanded a public confession (abhishasta) from the sinner.

Austerities and Atonement

By performing Vedic traditional rituals, the sins in Hinduism are removed by fasting, virtuous conduct, self-control, practice of nonviolence, truthfulness, austere living, practice of silence, concentration and meditation.

Sins in Hinduism
Your sins in Hinduism can be removed by Devoting yourself to the grace of God. Pixabay.

Rituals and sacrifices

The Vedas have recommended various rituals or sacrifices to wash away the the impurities (dhosas) arising from one’s birth, karma, relationships, place or direction related issues, vastu defects, dangerous diseases and evil conduct.

Prayers and Mantras

Vishnu Purana of the Hindu scriptures pronounce the effective importance of the continuous chanting of names of God (japam) in the Kaliyug. Some mantras and hymns are considered more significant than meditation and sacrifices to clean the impurities of the body.

Recitation of the Vedas and other Sacred Books

Knowledge (jnana) has the eternal power to remove the sins in Hinduism. It can be derived with regular reading up and learning from the scriptures of sacred importance.

Visiting pilgrimages

To grant your devotion and gratitude, Hinduism seeks to commit to Dharma by visiting holy pilgrimage place. It is a divine form of self-cleansing and experiencing peace and happiness.

Bathing in the sacred rivers

The sacred pilgrimages are mostly located near the banks of the rivers that are also treated as purifiers. Hence, bathing in those rivers lead your life into devotional worship as a purification rituals to overcome sins in Hinduism.

Yoga and Meditation

Pranayama and meditation are the suggested methods to practise peace and overcome past sins. They also form a major part of the austerities to cleanse the internal mind and body.

The blessings of saints and gurus

Saints, sadhus and mahatmas have been given a special status in Hinduism because of their respectful purity and virtue. They acquire divine knowledge and supreme powers, with which they cleanse those who approach them for blessings.

Sins in Hinduism
Worshipping the saints remove the sins in hinduism. Pixabay.

Virtuous conduct

Sinful karma can be countered with huge efforts into virtuous karma. The sins in Hinduism are washed away with kind and healthy conduct to everyone equally.


Dana (gift giving) or charity is very significant in Hindu Dharma. By conducting sacrifices and spiritual practices one must conduct charity as well. As a part of Vedas, the higher castes are under obligation to perform five daily sacrifices including offer food to gods, ancestors, sages, humans and creatures.

-Prepared by Bhavana Rathi of NewsGram. Twitter @tweet_bhavana

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Hinduism is Not an Official or Preferred Religion in Any Country of The World, Says a New Report

Though Hinduism is the third largest religion of the world, it is not the official state religion of any country according to a Pew Research Center Report

Hinduism is not an official religion of any country in the world. Instagram.
  • No country has declared Hinduism as its official state religion – despite India being an influential Hindu political party
  • Hinduism is not an official or preferred religion in any country of the world, according to a Pew Research Center report.
  • 53% of 199 nations considered in the study don’t have an official religion
  • 80 countries are assigned either an “official religion” or “preferred religion”

Nevada, USA, October 16: Hinduism is the primeval and third largest religion of the world with about 1.1 billion followers of moksh (liberation) being its utmost desire of life. India is among the category of nations where the government do not have an official or preferred religion.

Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank headquartered in Washington DC that aims to inform the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping America and the world.

The report states that a country’s official religion is regarded as a legacy of its past and present privileges granted by the state. And a few other countries fall on the other side of the gamut, and propagate their religion as the ‘official religion’, making it a compulsion for all citizens.

It adds up on the context of allocation that more than eight-in-ten countries (86%) provide financial support or resources for religious education programs and religious schools that tend to benefit the official religion.

Islam is the most practiced official religion of the world. Instagram.

Commenting on Hinduism, the report states:

In 2015, Nepal came close to enshrining Hinduism, but got rejected of a constitutional amendment due to a conflict between pro-Hindu protesters and state police.

Although India has no official or preferred religion as mentioned in the Constitution,it was found by PEW that in India the intensity of government constraints and social antagonism involving religion was at a peak. “Nigeria, India, Russia, Pakistan and Egypt had the highest levels of social hostilities involving religion among the 25 most populous countries in 2015. All fell into the “very high” hostilities category,” the report added.

As per the 2011 census, it was found that 79.8% of the Indian population idealizes Hinduism and 14.2% practices to Islam, while the rest 6% pursuit other religions.

While Hinduism stands up with the majority, Article 25 of the Constitution of India contributes secularism allowing for religious freedom and allows every Indian to practice his/her religion, without any intervention by the community or the government.

Distinguished Hindu statesman Rajan Zed, President of Universal Society of Hinduism, applauded the Hindu community for their benefaction to the society and advised Hindus to concentrate on inner purity, attract spirituality towards youth and children, stay far from the greed, and always keep God in the life.

According to Pew, these are “places where government officials seek to control worship practices, public expressions of religion and political activity by religious groups”.

-by Bhavana Rathi of NewsGram.  She can be reached @tweet_bhavana

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Paintings Which Beautifully Depict Scenes From Ramayana

Ram lifting the bow during Sita Swayambar. Wikimedia Commons.

Ramayana, the ancient Indian epic which describes the narrative of Ayodhya Prince lord Rama’s struggles. The struggles include- exile of 14 years, abduction of his wife Sita, reaching Lanka, destruction of the evil. It is strongly ingrained in the Indian culture, especially, the Hindu culture since a long time. Hindus celebrate Diwali based on the narratives of Ramayana.

The story of Ramayana gives out the beautiful message that humanity and service to the mankind is way more important than kingdom and wealth. Below are five paintings describing the scenes from Ramayana:

1. Agni Pariksha in Ramayana

Agni Pariksha. Wikimedia.

When Lord Rama questions Sita’s chastity, she undergoes Agni Pariksha, wherein, she enters a burning pyre, declaring that if she has been faithful to her husband then the fire would harm her. She gets through the test without any injuries or pain. The fire God, Agni, was the proof of her purity. Lord Rama accepts Sita and they return to Ayodhya. 

2. Scene From The Panchavati Forest

scene from the panchavati forest. wikimedia.

The picture describes a scene from the Panchavati forest. It is believed that Lord Rama built his forest by residing in the woods of Panchavati, near the sources of the river Godavari, a few miles from the modern city of Mumbai. He lived in peace with his wife and brother in the forest.

3. Hanuman Visits Sita

Hanuman meets Sita. Wikimedia.

Hanuman reaches Lanka in search of Sita. At first, he was unable to find Sita. He later saw a woman sitting in Ashok Vatika, drowned in her sorrows, looked extremely pale. He recognized her. After seeing the evil king, Ravana making her regular visit to Sita, he hid somewhere in the Vatika. After Ravana left, Hanuman proved Sita that he is Rama’s messenger by showing her his ring. He assured her that Rama would soon come to rescue her. Before leaving Lanka, he heckled Ravana. Agitated by Hanuman’s actions, Ravana ordered to set Hanuman’s tail on fire. With the burning tail, Hanuman set the entire city on fire.