Wednesday November 13, 2019

Blocking Digestive Hormone May Prevent Pancreatic Cancer

The team explained that pancreatic growth and regeneration occurs through interaction of CCK with CCK receptors, proteins that bind to CCK to produce a physiological reaction

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5 herbs for a healthy digestive system. Pixabay

Blocking a digestive hormone associated with obesity may help prevent the spread of pancreatic tumours to other areas in the body, according to a study.

A high-fat diet promotes the growth of pancreatic cancer independent of obesity because of the interaction between dietary fat and cholecystokinin (CCK) — digestive hormone released by the small intestine. The hormone secretion gets further triggered by the fatty diet.

Previous research has shown that obesity and high-fat diets both together and independently increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.

“Most patients with advanced pancreatic cancer succumb to the disease due to metastases; therefore a compound that blocks metastases, even when the primary tumour size is large, may have clinical significance,” said the researchers including Jill Smith from the Georgetown University in the US.

“CCK [receptor] blockade may play a role in the treatment and prevention of pancreatic cancer,” they added.

Previous research has shown that obesity and high-fat diets both together and independently increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Previous research has shown that obesity and high-fat diets both together and independently increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pixabay

For the study, published in American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, the team fed one group of mice with high-fat diet while the other half were given a normal diet. Then some of them were treated with proglumide — a medication that blocks CCK.

The results showed that mice treated with proglumide had less tumour growth than the untreated mice, even when fed a high-fat diet.

Further, they found that among high-fat diet-fed mice lacking CCK receptors did not show any tumour growth, suggesting that without receptors to bind to, increased CCK from dietary fat is unable to promote cancer.

Also Read: More Women Falling Prey to Lung Cancer: Study

The team explained that pancreatic growth and regeneration occurs through interaction of CCK with CCK receptors, proteins that bind to CCK to produce a physiological reaction.

Proglumide treatment also protected the mice from the development of excessive fibrous tissue — fibrosis — that can be associated with cancer metastases and resistance to chemotherapy, the researchers said. (IANS)

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Pancreatic, Colorectal Cancer up 10% in 30 Years, Says Study

The research was published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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Cancer
Cancer Ribbon. Pixabay

Global death rates for pancreatic cancer and incidence rates for colorectal cancer both increased by 10 per cent between 1990 and 2017, the results of a major study conducted across 195 countries revealed.

The results, presented at the UEG Week Barcelona, found that the number of pancreatic cancer cases increased by 130 per cent over the 27-year study period, from 1,95,000 in 1990 to 4,48,000 in 2017.

“Pancreatic cancer is one of the world’s deadliest cancers, with an overall five-year survival rate of just five per cent in high, middle and low-income countries,” said study lead author Reza Malekzadeh, Professor at Tehran University in the Iran.

“Major risk factors for the disease, such as smoking, diabetes and obesity, are largely modifiable and present a huge opportunity for prevention,” Malekzadeh added.

Whilst some of this increase can be explained by the rising population and longevity, even after accounting for population changes, age-standardised incidence and death rates for pancreatic cancer increased by 12 per cent and 10 per cent respectively, the study said.

According to the researchers, the increase is related to a rise in the prevalence of obesity and diabetes, as reflected by the risk factors of high BMI and higher blood glucose levels which are two of the leading risk factors for pancreatic cancer.

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Infertile women had an overall 18 per cent higher risk of developing cancer compared to women who were not infertile. Pixabay

From 1990 to 2017, age-standardised incidence rates for colorectal cancer increased 9.5 per cent globally but, by contrast, age-standardised death rates decreased by 13.5 per cent.

The researchers believe that this is due to the introduction of colorectal cancer screening programmes, leading to earlier detection and an increased chance of survival.

The study also indicated that the risk factors for colorectal cancer are different in males and females, and should, therefore, be considered in national policy and prevention programmes.

Also Read: 47 Attorneys General in US Join Anti-trust Probe Against Facebook

According to the findings, alcohol use, smoking and diets low in calcium, milk and fibre had a considerable burden on males. For females, dietary risks, but not alcohol use or smoking, were found to be the most attributable risks.

“Examining these cross-populational trends offers vital information on the changing burden of disease and aids the correct allocation of resources to improve patient outcomes,” said Professor Herbert Tilg, Chair of the UEG Scientific Committee.

The research was published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology. (IANS)