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Building Community Toilets cannot counter open defecation in Rural India: WHO

The mere availability of government-built latrines will not end open defecation, we need awareness and education regarding this

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Children in slum in India. Wikimedia
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Sept 21, 2016: A new World Health Organisation (WHO) report concludes that more than half of the Indian population still “continue to defecate in gutters, behind bushes or in open water bodies, with no dignity or privacy”.

And how are we supposed to cure this?

Proper sanitation is a big threat to our health conditions that India’s politicians have tried tackling since ages. Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), both promised to put an end to open defecation in their 2014 general election manifestos and kept this issue as one of the most important agendas in the election.

PM Narendra Modi, once said during his election campaign, “Toilets first, temples later”.

And the former rural development minister from Congress Jairam Ramesh had also asserted on the fact that, “practising good hygiene is as important as performing good puja” ( the act of worship in Hinduism).

Well, let’s have a look at the government sanitation policy to date for a moment.

Open defecation in India is catastrophic, when done in groups. Wikimedia Commons
Open defecation in India is catastrophic when done in groups. Wikimedia

For the past 15 years, two major campaigns are into action to eradicate the issue of poor sanitation in India: the Total Sanitation Campaign and the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan. These two have been trying to improve sanitation predicament across the non-urban areas of India by building both household and community latrines, mentioned riceinstitute.org.

But despite all the efforts, there has been very slight change in our plight regarding open defecation. In fact, from 2001 to 2011, latrine coverage in rural India increased by about one percentage point each year. At this rate, it would take the concerned authorities almost 50 years to eliminate open defecation to an extent, if not completely.

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And hence, continuing with the same plan of action is, therefore, not going to help achieve the government’s goal.

According to riceinstitute.org, a broader matter of concern is public health. The issue of open defecation is catastrophic when practised by groups in close contact with each other. Because India’s population is huge, population density is alarming and growing rapidly hence it is impossible to keep human faeces from crops, wells, food, soil and children’s hands.

The ingested bacteria spread diseases, especially related to the intestine. They cause enteropathy, a chronic illness that prevents the body from absorbing calories and nutrients.

That helps to explain that in spite of rising incomes and better diets, rates of child malnourishment in India has not shown much improve.

UN’s agency for children, the UNICEF has estimated that nearly one-half of Indian children remain malnourished.

Pouring concrete will not solve India’s problems. Leaders and political organisations also need to confront the cultural and archaic reasons responsible for bad sanitation.

Eradicating open defecation from Indian society requires changing minds, not just allocating money to building latrines for people that will either go unused or not be built at all.

Under the current sanitation policy, there is a provision for Information, Education, and Communication, (IEC) but the spending on such activities is restricted to 15 percent of the whole budget signalling that it should be considered secondary to latrine construction.

Consequently, only six per cent of the total sanitation budget has been spent on IEC to date. Instead of capping the IEC budget, the government should be prioritising it, because awareness always helps.

Pieces of evidence show that India must urgently correct its cultural practices, though it is sensitive to say so. Apart from poverty and lack of lavatories, prioritising reasons often cited to explain open defecation in India is the innate cultural norm making the practice socially acceptable in some parts of the society. Researchers found that only a quarter of rural householders understood that washing hands help prevent diarrhoea.

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This suggests that the mere availability of government-built latrines will not end open defecation. The need of the hour is the public campaigns, in schools and in the media, to explain the hygienic and fiscal benefaction of using toilets.

A catchy animated music video put out by UNICEF urges Indians to “take the poo to the loo”. The intention is right, even if the dancing turds will not immediately be to everyone’s taste.

Such campaigns not only mean that government-built latrines will possess a better chance of being used; they would also encourage households to build them for themselves.

– prepared by Arya Sharan of NewsGram. Twitter: @NoOffense9

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Copyright 2016 NewsGram

  • Anubhuti Gupta

    The need for sanitation awareness is not taken up enough in our country although it is equally if not more important than other issues like education and such

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History of Case Study – from Columbus to Nowadays

After the introduction of the new teaching method, the Harvard Business School immediately sensed an influx of students.

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Education concept: closed book with Red Head With Lightbulb icon and text Case Study on floor, white background, 3d render

Christopher Columbus Langdell is considered the founder of the case method. History of case study starts when he becomes a dean in Harvard University. Langdell practically opened a new field in teaching, much like his famous namesake discovered America in his time. In the same way, at first he had to face difficulties, distrust and resistance of supporters of traditional education. Langdell served as dean of the law school at Harvard University. He himself was a graduate of this school, having studied there twice the allotted time and spent the extra time working at the Harvard Library. Langdell carefully studied numerous court cases and had a truly encyclopedic knowledge in this area.

At that time, students at law schools were studying by listening to lectures and studying textbooks, in which interpretations of normative acts were collected, and best practices of applying laws were described. Students memorized the material and then reproduced it in front of the teacher in class. They got this experience much later when they started practicing real practice. Langdell suggested the opposite approach, interrupting the tradition of constant cramming. Having become a dean in 1870, he immediately began to implement the case-study method — a method of analyzing real situations, inviting students to familiarize themselves with the original materials of the case and draw their own conclusion. To facilitate this work, he prepared a special collection of training materials — cases, providing each case with a small two-page introduction. In the classroom, students with the help of Langdell discussed the facts, revealed controversial points, studied the arguments of the parties, talked about the doctrines and principles underlying the case, and compared them with other legal cases.

Case Study
The difficulty was that the majority of teachers were scientists and did not have practical business experience and hence didn’t have good Case Study Material

Innovation = Conflict

At first, the innovation met sharp resistance and outrage from the students. Speaking on a given topic turned out to be much more difficult than simply reproducing a learned text. Many of the students “voted with their feet” — during the first three years of the introduction of the new method, the number of applicants decreased from 165 to 117.

Nevertheless, Langdell retained his post, and by 1895 the case study method was firmly

established in the Harvard Law School, and with it in six elite law universities (in Columbia, Yale, Chicago, and others). By the 1920s, the method of handling cases from real court practice became fundamental in legal education and remains so to this day.

First business cases

In the business environment cases also came from Harvard. In 1908, the Harvard Business School (HBS) was founded, which began to award Master’s degrees in business (Master of Business Administration). At first, things were not going very smoothly – “we had to deal with sponsors from the business community, not at all enthusiastic, loud and skeptical students, jealous and cynical university colleagues, and trustees, not to mention financial problems.” Only eight of the thirty-three students of the first set reached the second year of study.

Case Study
By the 1920s, the method of handling cases from real court practice became fundamental in legal education and remains so to this day and is used as case study

The idea to build training around the discussion of problems related to business management arose from the first dean of the school, Edwin Gay, and the first trial course entitled The Art of Doing Business was read in 1912.

Professors Were Smart… But not Enough

The difficulty was that the majority of teachers were scientists and did not have practical business experience. Therefore, at first, managing managers and directors of large firms, owners of their own companies, who shared real situations with their audiences, were invited to the Harvard Business School. Students analyzed what they heard and two days later submitted written reports with recommendations for solving the problem, and then discussed them in the audience.

However, the case-based method was finally established in HBS only half a century after its invention by Langdell — in the 1920s, when a graduate of the Harvard Law School, corporate finance specialist Wallace Donham was appointed dean. Donham spoke of his work this way: “I did not have theoretical knowledge in business, and my teachers, as I found out, had little practical experience in this field. To get used to each other was very problematic.

Donham himself was an ardent supporter of the use of the case method. The only obstacle was the lack of ready-made materials like published collections of court decisions. Donham convinced his colleague, marketing professor Melvin Copeland, to remake his training program as a pilot project and include a description of several real business problems. Published in September 1920, this program is considered the first collection of business cases. Students discussed the situation in the audience, analyzed it from different sides and offered solutions. Unlike legal cases, business cases often did not have a ready answer, and students learned to act in the face of uncertainty, tight deadlines and a lack of information.

case study
Unlike legal cases, business cases often did not have a ready answer, and students learned to act in the face of uncertainty, tight deadlines and a lack of information, therefore case study are crucial

After the introduction of the new teaching method, the Harvard Business School immediately sensed an influx of students: their number increased from 30–50 annually accepted applicants to 500 in 1932.

Top-9 Facts about Case Studies

  1. The teachers of the Harvard Business School (HBS) wrote about 80% of the cases used for training around the world.
  2. Each year, HBS teachers create about 350 cases on the basis of real business situations. It takes from one to four months to write a case.
  3. The main characters of the cases are mostly men (91%); in the next five years, HBS plans to increase the number of female characters in cases up to 20%
  4. At the height of the Second World War, HBS teachers wrote 600 custom case studies for military personnel.
  5. On average, in two years, every MBA student at HBS studies 500-600 cases and spends 80-90% of his time doing it.
  6. In HBS, there is a common practice when a real prototype of the main character of a case is present during the analysis (personally or in video mode), answers students’ questions, comments on their decision and explains how and why he acted in a real situation.
  7. In May 2008, HBS decided to diversify the format of cases, make them more elegant, literary, with a bright cover and sell them as books near cash desks in stores. Similar cases can be targeted, for example, for housewives. For this, HBS has already signed a contract with a famous American novelist Danielle Steel.
  8. It is believed that most of the heroes of the cases are top managers. However, there are also cases dedicated to athletes, cultural figures, community leaders and government officials. So, some famous cases are devoted to the former head coach of Manchester United, Sir Alex Ferguson, tennis player Maria Sharapova, and even Lady Gaga.
  9. HBS has Kids Case Discussions — a special children’s class for children of graduates. University professors teach classes, and children discuss real, un-adapted Harvard cases with them.

This article is provided by an expert from GetCaseStudy.com – professional custom case study writing service.