New Delhi: The union cabinet on Wednesday approved the revised cost estimate for a multi-modal transit transport project passing through Myanmar that will provide an alternate access route to India’s northeastern states.
“The union cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Wednesday gave its approval for the revised cost estimate of Rs 2,904.04 crore (about Rs 29 billion) for the Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project in Myanmar,” an official statement said.
“The project will provide an alternate access route to the northeastern region of India and contribute towards the region’s economic development. Being a key connectivity project, it will promote economic, commercial and strategic links between India and Myanmar,” it added.
The Kaladan Multi-Modal Transit Transport Project was jointly identified by India and Myanmar to create a multi-modal mode of transport for shipment of cargo from the eastern ports of India to Myanmar as well as to the northeastern part of India through Myanmar.
This project, which will connect Sittwe port in Myanmar to the India-Myanmar border, apart from opening up the sea route for the products, will also provide a strategic link to the northeast, according to the statement.
The project, when completed, will first link the Kolkata port to the port of Sittwe in Myanmar across the Bay of Bengal, a distance of 539 km.
From Sittwe, the route will continue over river Kaladan to the western Myanmarese town of Paletwa, 158 km away.
Paletwa will then be connected to the India-Myanmar border by a 110-km-long road.
The international border will then be connected by road to the town of Lawngtlai in Mizoram 100 km away where National Highway 54 passes by.
The project includes construction of an integrated port and inland water transport (IWT) terminal at Sittwe, development of a navigational channel along river Kaladan in Myanmar from Sittwe to Paletwa, and construction of a highway transshipment terminal at Paletwa.
This apart, the project also envisages construction of six IWT barges – each of 300 tonnes capacity – for transportation of cargo between Sittwe and Paletwa.
In 2009, the Inland Waterways Authority of India (IWAI) was appointed the project development consultant by the ministry of external affairs, the nodal agency for India. On the Myanmar side, the ministry of foreign affairs is the nodal agency.
Construction work at Sittwe in Myanmar started in December 2010 but problems arose over underestimation of the road length on the Myanmar side and plans to construct hydro-electric projects on tributaries of the Kaladan river.
Though the project was earlier scheduled to be completed in 2014, Minister of State for External Affairs VK Singh said last year that it would now be completed by 2016.
When completed, the route will provide a viable alternative to the existing overstretched route via Siliguri in West Bengal, popularly known as the Chicken’s Neck.
More than 400 villagers fled their homes in the hills east of volatile Rakhine state’s Mrauk-U township on Sunday when the Myanmar Army fired into their communities amid an increase in the number of government troops in the area, local residents said.
Altogether, 3,000-some people from Mrauk-U have fled to safety from armed conflict between Myanmar soldiers and the Arakan Army (AA), a Buddhist Rakhine army fighting for autonomy in the state, since Feb. 19, 2019. They are staying temporarily in 13 camps in the township, according to locals providing assistance for the displaced residents.
“We fled from our village because we are afraid of government soldiers,” said Win Maung, the head of Maw village who is now living in a displacement camp. “They make arrests and abduct villagers.”
Rakhine state’s Disaster Management Department said it has provided rice, clothing and household goods to internally displaced persons (IDPs) from Mrauk-U, but camp leaders said only locals have been helping them.
“Only locals are helping these IDPs, but they have received almost nothing from the government,” said Maung Thar Khin, leader of the Shitthaung Monastery IDP camp where more than 250 IDP are living.
Some others IDPs expressed concern about having to live in the midst of ongoing armed conflict.
Mya Thaung Shwe, an IDP at the camp, said, “We had no worries in the past, but we have a lot of anxiety now as we are caught in a warzone.”
“We want peace,” said IDP Khin Maung Kyi. “The government hasn’t done anything [about the fighting]. It seems we are going to lose all our belongings and even our lives soon because we have to flee whenever fighting occurs around us.”
‘Staging fake battles’
An uptick in fighting between Myanmar forces and the AA since late 2018 has left an undetermined number of people dead and has caused about 20,000 to seek shelter in safe places, according to estimates by locals in Rakhine state, though the state government outs the number of IDPs at about 7,800.
Earlier this month, the AA said that the Myanmar Army has sent more than 8,000 troops to northern Rakhine state since the beginning of the year.
AA spokesman Khine Thukha said there has been no fighting between government army and Arakan soldiers in Mrauk-U since March 15, and called Myanmar military reports about clashes untrue.
“There was no fighting involving us in these areas,” he said. “The government army has been staging fake battles. They’ve been firing artillery into residential areas at night.”
Colonel Win Zaw Oo, spokesman of the Myanmar military’s Western Command which is responsible for Rakhine state, also said that no fighting had occurred in Mrauk-U township since mid-month, but added that the AA attacked military security guards with improvised explosive devices on March 17 near Waithali village.
Afterwards, Myanmar soldiers also nabbed a 63-year-old man named Sein Hla Maung who had some explosives and mine-related equipment, he said.
Hostilities continue to take place in other Rakhine townships, Win Zaw Oo said.
“Even yesterday, our troops from Sittwe went to Ponnagyun township for road security and about 30 AA troops attacked them near Ponnagyun, and a clash ensued,” he said, adding that Myanmar soldiers used heavy weaponry in the attack and killed one AA soldier
“Sometimes the AA tries to provoke a clash in towns, and we think that the AA does it intentionally,” he added.
Archaeologists decry damage
Not only residents of Mrauk-U, but also archaeologists are concerned about the effects of the ongoing hostilities in their ancient township.
Battles between Myanmar and Arakan forces damaged some of the township archeological heritage buildings and have become an obstacle to efforts to include the monuments on the UNESCO World Heritage list, residents and archaeologists said.
Hundreds of ancient but well-preserved temples and pagodas that dot the area’s hills are remnants of a powerful empire that existed there from the 15th century to the late 18th century.
“The damage inside the archaeological heritage areas caused by the ongoing fighting could be irreparable,” said Khin Than, chairwoman of the group Mrauk-U Heritage Trust.
“I am concerned that these irreplaceable archaeological treasures won’t be able to survive if there is heavy artillery firing and bombing by airstrikes,” she said. “Locals who live inside the archaeological zone also want peace and stability. Nobody wants war.”
The A-Naut-Myae-Htae pagoda was hit by fallen mortar shells during a night of shooting and shelling in Mrauk-U on March 15, said Than Htike, director of Mrauk-U’s Archaeological Department.
A security tent near the Shite-Thaung pagoda, an iconic monument among Rakhine’s archeological sites, was hit by heavy artillery, while bullets fell in the vicinity, which is designated as an archaeological zone, he said.
“These sites are located deep inside the zone,” he said. “It definitely impacts the preservation work. We can only make progress in our efforts in archaeological preservation if both sides of the conflict stop fighting.”
The Myanmar government is preparing to nominate the Mrauk-U archeological zone to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in September. The process will be finalized by February 2020.
“The armed conflicts have affected our efforts for World Heritage Site preservation,” said Than Htike. “They have deterred the management work for the preservation of the heritage monuments.”
The archeologists said they are concerned that the cultural and historical heritage monuments might not survive the ongoing fighting.
Tourists stay away
Visits by international tourists to the archeological sites have dropped markedly since early 2019, and local tourists also stopped coming since the fighting erupted in Mrauk-U township, local hoteliers said.
“The archeological sites and ancient monuments are the primary draw for tourism,” said Hla Myint, owner of Mrauk-U Princess Hotel. “Now the armed conflicts have stopped tourist arrivals.”
Other hotels, guesthouses, and transportation and tourism-related business in the region have practically come to a standstill as well, local entrepreneurs said.
“There are some hotels, guesthouses, and transportation companies that all relied on this small number of tourists,” Hla Myint said. “Now they all have come to a halt.”
AA spokesman Khine Thukha accused the government army of damaging ancient monuments and temples in Mrauk-U.
“They are the ones walking with shoes inside Buddhist temples, though they call themselves Buddhists,” he said. “Some government troops even camp inside the archaeological zone. They are ruining our archaeological heritage.”
But Colonel Win Zaw Oo denied the accusation, blaming AA troops for the damage instead.
“They are fabricating the damage of archaeological sites and artillery firing by us,” he said. “Actually, many trenches have been dug up by AA troops inside the archaeological zone. They are pretty hypocritical.” (RFA)