Tuesday March 20, 2018

Cancer can now be predicted 13 years before it strikes

By NewsGram Staff Writer

Cancer research has just got a huge boost. The rejuvenated shot comes with the development of an error free and accurate test by scientists that predicts the chances of being implicated with cancer up to 13 years in the future.

The breakthrough was made by researchers at Harvard and Northwestern University, by making use of the discovery of tiny but significant changes taking place in the body, more than a decade before cancer was diagnosed.

According to the research, published in the online journal Ebiomedicine, the protective caps on the ends of chromosomes, which prevent DNA damage, were more worn down for those who went on to develop cancer.

The protective caps, better known as “telomeres”, were found to be much shorter than they should have been. They continued to get shorter and then suddenly stopped shrinking four years before the cancer developed.

Dr Lifang Hou, the lead study author, told The Telegraph, “Because we saw a strong relationship in the pattern across a wide variety of cancers, with the right testing these procedures could be used eventually to diagnose a wide variety of cancers.”

“Understanding this pattern of telomere growth may mean it can be a predictive biomarker for cancer. We found cancer has hijacked the telomere shortening in order to flourish in the body”, he further said.

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New AI system can diagnose prostate cancer just good as pathologists

"The system was programmed to learn and gradually improve how it interpreted the samples. Our result show that the diagnosis the AI reported was at a level comparable to that of a pathologist"

Chronic diseases can cause cancer as well.
Chronic diseases can cause cancer as well.
  • This new AI can identify cancer just as accurately as a pathology lab
  • This app can overcome the shortage of pathologists
  • The app is very useful and revolutionary

Researchers have developed a new learning artificial intelligence (AI) system which can diagnose and identify cancerous prostate samples as accurately as any pathologist.

Chronic diseases are not yet included in cancer prevention schemes.
New mobile app can detect cancer.

According to the researchers, this holds out the possibility of streamlining and eliminating variation in the process of cancer diagnosis. It may also help overcome any local shortage of trained pathologists.

“This is not going to replace a human pathologist. We still need an experienced pathologist to take responsibility for the final diagnosis,” said lead author Hongqian Guo from the Nanjing University in China.

Also Read: Girls may inherit ovarian cancer gene from fathers

“What it will do is help pathologists make better, faster diagnosis, as well as eliminating the day-to-day variation in judgement which can creep into human evaluations,” Guo added.

For the study, presented at the 33rd European Association of Urology Congress in Copenhagen, researchers took 918 prostate whole mount pathology section samples from 283 patients, and ran these through the analysis system, with the software gradually learning and improving diagnosis.

These pathology images were subdivided into 40,000 smaller samples; 30,000 of these samples were used to ‘train’ the software, the remaining 10,000 were used to test accuracy.

The results showed an accurate diagnosis in 99.38 percent of cases (using a human pathologist as a ‘gold standard’), which is effectively as accurate as the human pathologist.

The app is just as effective as a pathologist. Pixabay

They were also able to identify different Gleason Grades in the pathology sections using AI; ten whole mount prostate pathology sections have been tested so far, with similar Gleason Grade in the AI and human pathologist’s diagnosis. The group has not started testing the system with human patients.

“The system was programmed to learn and gradually improve how it interpreted the samples. Our result show that the diagnosis the AI reported was at a level comparable to that of a pathologist. “Furthermore, it could accurately classify the malignant levels of prostate cancer,” Guo added. IANS

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