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By Nithin Sridhar
India has produced many scientists and mathematicians throughout history who have made many significant contributions that has not only furthered the scientific knowledge, but has also revolutionized human life. One such Indian scientist was Sir CV Raman, who was born on this day, i.e. November 7 in 1888 and who later went on to make unique contributions in the field of optics and acoustics that had revolutionized scientific knowledge.
His life: Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, or CV Raman as he was popularly known was born in Tiruchirapalli in the present day Tamil Nadu as a second child of Chandrasekhar Iyer and Pravathi Ammal.
His father was a lecturer of Physics and Mathematics and Raman was naturally exposed to the wonders of science right from childhood. He finished his matriculation at the age of eleven and then he joined Presidency College in 1902, Madras to pursue Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Physics. He won a gold medal in his BA examinations in 1904 and passed his Master of Arts (MA) in 1907 with highest distinctions.
He joined Indian Finance Department in 1907 as Deputy Accountant general in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and in the same year he married Lokasundari Ammal as well. After joining the financial department, Raman found very little time to indulge in his scientific research yet he managed to keep his interest alive by working on experimental research in the laboratory of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS) during his free time.
Finally, in 1917, when Raman was offered Palit Chair of Physics at Calcutta University, he immediately accepted the offer. In 1928, he along with his collaborators at IACS conducted experiments on the scattering of lights and that led to the discovery of what is now famous as Raman Effect. He won the Nobel Prize for this discovery in 1930.
Later, he left IACS and moved to Bangalore in 1933 to join Indian Institute of Science (IISc) as its first director. A year after retiring from IISc in 1948, he established Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, where he continued his research till 1970. He died on November 21 due to massive heart attack.
For his immense contribution to science, Raman was honored with a large number of honorary doctorates. He was also elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1924, and was also honored with Knighthood in 1929.
CV Raman made unique and far reaching contributions in the field of optics. In 1921, when Raman was on a voyage to Europe, he noticed the blue color of the glaciers and the Mediterranean Sea. This led him to investigate the phenomenon of scattering of light that led to the discovery of Raman Effect.
Raman Effect is effectively utilized in various different fields ranging from identifying minerals to detecting diseases and mapping cancerous cells. He also made significant contributions in the field of acoustics. He worked extensively on the acoustics of musical instruments. He, along with his student Nagendra Nath provided theoretical explanations for light scattering by sound waves.
Raman also studied spectroscopic behavior of crystals and the properties of diamond among other things. In 1926, he established Indian Journal of Physics and was also behind the establishment of Indian Academy of Sciences. He mentored various students like Nagendra Nath and G N Ramachandran.
CV Raman contributed to the growth of scientific research in modern India through his journals, institutes, and mentoring of students across the length and breadth of the country. But, most importantly, he served as an inspiration for many generations of budding Indian scientists and science enthusiasts.
The Supreme Court on Tuesday agreed to examine a seeking direction to the Election Commission to de-register a political party, which fails to comply with the court's direction to disclose criminal antecedents of candidates fielded in polls. Advocate Ashwini Upadhyay requested a bench headed by Chief Justice N.V. Ramana and comprising Justices A.S. Bopanna and Hima Kohli to list the petition urgently, against the backdrop of the ongoing election process. He contended that nomination for the first phase of the Uttar Pradesh Assembly election has started, and the political parties and candidates are brazenly violating the top court judgments.
After briefly hearing Upadhyay, the bench said: "We will consider it... will give a date".
The plea argued that allowing criminals to stand for election threatens democracy and secularism. | Wikipedia
The plea claimed that the cause of action for filing the plea arose after the Samajwadi Party fielded alleged gangster Nahid Hasan from Kairana but neither published his criminal records in electronic, print and social media nor the reason for his selection within 48 hours. On February 13, last year, Shamli police imposed the Gangster Act on Nahid Hasan, who is a two-time MLA from Kairana. "He (Hasan) has multiple criminal cases and is the 'mastermind' behind the Hindu exodus from Kairana. There are many criminal cases including fraud and extortion, and he was declared a fugitive by Special MLA-MP Court," the plea said.
The plea argued that the consequences of permitting criminals to contest and become legislators are extremely serious for democracy and secularism. The plea sought a direction to the Election Commission to take steps to ensure that every political party publishes the details regarding criminal cases of each candidate along with the reason for such selection on the homepage of its official website in bold letters within 48 hours in the spirit of top court orders passed on September 25, 2018, and February 2, 2020. (IANS/ MBI)
(Keywords: uttar pradesh assembly election, hima kohli, justices a.s. bopanna, chief justice n.v. ramana, political party, election commission, the supreme court, tainted candidates, action, plea)
There will be no chief guest at the Republic Day parade this year also as the plan to host state heads of five Central Asian countries -- Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan -- seems to have been cancelled due to the Covid situation in India as well as in the respective nations. Though the Ministry of External Affairs is yet to confirm this officially.
If the guests arrive, then this would be the second time when India hosts a group of state heads as the chief guests on the Republic Day. In 2018, state heads of ASEAN countries graced the occasion with their presence. Apart from Kazakhstan, none of these countries' state heads had been invited as the chief guests on the Republic Day. In 2009, Kazakhstan's then president Nursultan Nazarbayev was the Chief Guest.
The Government of India is in no mood to take any risk to invite any foreign guest.Unsplash
As per sources, due to the corona situation, the Government of India is in no mood to take any risk to invite any foreign guest, so the plan seems to have been cancelled. Last year, British Prime minister Boris Johnson was invited for the same, but later cancelled due to rising corona cases in the UK.
In the past, there have been occasions when the Republic Day ceremony was celebrated without any foreign guest. In 1966, there was no foreign chief guest in the Republic Day parade ceremony as the then Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri had passed away in Tashkent in January, and Indira Gandhi took oath as Prime Minister on January 24. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : chief, guest, Republic Day, parade, India, January, pandemic, 2022, host, nation, guest, invite, foreign, occasion, presence, celebrate.)
A team of scientists from the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) have found a cure for those suffering from chronic wounds, particularly with diabetic foot ulcers. The team led by Prof Gopal Nath of the department of Microbiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, said that wounds that took months and years to heal, could now be cured in days or months. The findings of study have been published in the National Centre for Biotechnology Information, National Institutes of Health, US.
Prof Nath said that a wound is defined as a breach in the skin or body tissues due to injury. An acute wound is defined as a "recent break that is yet to progress through sequential stages of healing". The wounds where normal healing process is stalled due to underlying pathology (vascular and diabetes) or infection beyond three months is defined as chronic wound. While chronic wounds always get infected, the contaminated wounds are reasonably susceptible to infection.
A significant improvement could be achieved in the form of complete wound epithelization within a few weeks.Towfiqu barbhuiya / Unsplash
Infection with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilm formation halt healing progress. These wounds cause significant psychological and physical morbidity. The traditional treatment strategies often succeed in healing wounds, he said adding that many wounds have been observed recalcitrant to them, leading to persistence and recurrent infections. Search for alternatives to antibiotics has now become a compulsion. Fortunately, bacteriophage therapy is a re-emerging solution to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Prof Nath's team carried out phage therapy of acute and chronic infected wounds in animals and clinical studies. It showed efficacy against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a mice wound model. Furthermore, they evaluated the efficacy of phage cocktails in animal models' acute and chronic osteomyelitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. They also observed biofilm eradication from K wire in rabbits' wound infection model. Clinical trials of phage therapy initiated by the BHU have reported the efficacy of topical phage in healing chronic wounds in three prospective exploratory studies and no adverse events mimicking the results in vivo animal models.
Scientists have found a cure for those suffering from diabetic foot ulcers. Unsplash
A clinical study by Gupta demonstrated the significant role of bacteriophage therapy in the chronic wounds associated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The study employed a total of twenty patients with chronic non-healing ulcers for more than six weeks duration. A significant improvement could be achieved in the form of complete wound epithelization within a few weeks. Another study, employing 48 patients having a minimum of one eligible full-thickness wound that did not heal in six weeks with convention wound management, showed the promising result, and significant improvement was observed in the wound healing.
The study projected that specific phage therapy is equally effective regardless of the diabetic or non-diabetic status of the patient though the healing was relatively delayed in diabetic patients. Another successful study has shown encouraging results on healing process of infected acute traumatic wounds. The average number of days required for complete granulation of wounds and attaining sterility and healing was half compared to conventional therapy. (IANS/SP)
(Keywords : scientists, cure, chronic, wound, suffer, ulcer, diabetes, healing, pathology, health, infection, bacteria, study, patient, therapy, successful.)
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