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Kolkata, October 18, 2016: Of the 177 hydropower projects (HPP) located close to Himalayan glaciers over a fifth — including many in India — could be under threat from floods caused by the outbursts of glacial lakes, European researchers have warned.
The researchers, from various universities, have charted out a new method for locating the minimum exposure that hydropower sites in the Himalayas have to glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) — a type of outburst flood that occurs when the dam containing a glacial lake fails.
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Himalayan water resources attract a rapidly-growing number of HPPs to satisfy Asia’s soaring energy demands. Yet, the projects now operational or at a planning stage in steep, glacier-fed mountain rivers face hazards of GLOFs that can damage hydropower infrastructure, alter water and sediment yields and compromise livelihoods downstream.
The researchers evaluated the regional exposure of 257 Himalayan HPPs to GLOFs and assessed the flood risk to them from 2,359 moraine-dammed glacial lakes.
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Moraines are dirt and rock debris that have been pushed along by glaciers as they move. The moraines form a dam containing lakes when the glaciers recede. But as glaciers further recede and the lake becomes larger, they are susceptible to giving way — unleashing a flood that could threaten HPPs downstream.
“The number of hydroelectric power projects in the Himalayas has been increasing during the last decades and many more are planned. This trend has led to increasing implementation of the projects on rivers higher up and closer to glaciers,” the study’s lead author, Wolfgang Schwanghart, a geologist at the Institute of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Potsdam, Germany, told IANS in an email interaction.
“Our key result is that the majority of the projects are currently planned or constructed where these uncertainties become relevant and potentially dangerous,” he added.
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Most of the sampled hydropower projects are in the Indian Himalayan states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Sikkim, and some in Nepal and Bhutan.
“Our database encompasses 257 HPPs, 177 of which are located on potential GLOF tracks. In 56 HPP (one fifth of 177), the volume of floodwater may exceed the limit they are designed to withstand,” explained Schwanghart.
The striking factor, said Schwanghart, is the density of dams in Sikkim in northeast India.
“Particularly, Sikkim stands out as a region combining abundant glacial lakes, long potential GLOF tracks, and pronounced hydropower development. Several regions in Eastern Nepal and Bhutan also host lakes that could give rise to far-reaching GLOFs,” he said.
Strategies for climate change mitigation and adaptation at the sub-national level are currently prepared by Indian Himalayan states (State Action Plans on Climate Change), and identify GLOFs as a major climate change-related threat to hydropower development (Government of Uttarakhand, 2014), the study says.
At the same time, however, hydropower is being harnessed in a major way in these states to meet the increasing power demand and advance low-carbon economies.
“Disregarding the current upstream increase of uncertainties about GLOF discharges for HPP to be located in headwaters may undermine some of the coordination between climate-change mitigation, adaption, and energy plans,” the study warns.
Published in the journal Environmental Research Letters, the analysis also involves experts from the University of Geneva and University of Switzerland.
The experts used high-resolution remote sensing imagery from Google Earth for mapping glacial lakes, as well as publicly available digital elevation models.
Run-off data are scarce in the Himalayas due to restrictive data policies. Data on HPPs were mined from various sites in the internet including those of many hydropower companies, the Indian Power Ministry, the UN, and the World Bank, Schwanghart said, adding the study does not factor in climate change.
The scientists used computer simulations to determine how much floodwater might be released from such lakes, if the moraine embankments fail and how far the water would travel.
“India has a great share of its hydropower in the Himalayas. This share is likely to increase in the future. The high vulnerability to flash floods during the Indian floods suggests a high vulnerability to GLOFs, too.
“However, large parts of the Indian Himalayas are not among those areas that experience the strongest glacier retreat rates. However, this might change in the future and highlights the necessity for reliable climate change projections and its influence on Himalayan glacier retreat, and ultimately the development of glacial lakes,” Schwanghart cautioned. (IANS)
Great historic events that have shaped the world and changed the outlines of countries are often not recorded in memory, or so we think. Wars made sure to destroy evidence and heritage, and the ones who survived told the tale of what really happened. Folklore, albeit through oral tradition kept alive many such stories, hidden in verse, limericks, and rhymes.
Ringa-ringa-roses, a common playtime rhyme among children across the world, is an example of folklore that has survived for many centuries. It tells the story of the The Great Plague of London which ravaged the city between 1665-1666.
The Plague broke out from improper disposal of garbage and poor sewage conditions. Fleas from the rats that lived in the sewers spread the disease that killed more than half of London's population. Many people fled from their homes as there was no medicine available for those who were infected.
Beak-shaped masks worn during the Great Plague of London Image source: wikimedia commons
It was around this time that masks began to be invented. The first masks were shaped like beaks, and were worn not to protect the wearer from the disease, but to the prevent them from being able to smell the decay and death around them, which they called 'miasma'. The beaks were filled with floral herbs that allowed doctors and nurses to tend to the sick without being reviled from the smell.
Children are often seen forming circles by holding hands and reciting loudly,
Pockets full of posies
We all fall down"
An illustration of the Great Plague of London, 1665 Image source: wikimedia commons
When the last line is sung, they break the circle and fall down. The roses and posies are believed to be the preferred fragrances inside the masks, and a single sneeze (a-tishoo) was enough to infect the one who was exposed to the disease. Consequently, they fell down, ill, and later died.
An alternative version of this rhyme is sung about the fall of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the aftermath of World War II. The roses and posies are interchanged with geranium and uranium, to symbolise what was used in the atomic bomb. But this version is not as famous the original.
Keywords: Rhymes, Ringa-ringa-roses, Great Plague of London, WWII, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Folklore
In modern times, many social movements aim to bring reform to the society we live in, on the basis of certain existing patterns. Patriarchy is something that many aim to cleanse our cultures of, to usher in the era of social and gender equality. Despite all these so-called movements, in southern India, certain societies that patronise matriarchy have existed since before India's independence. The Nairs and Ezhavas of Kerala, and Bunts and Billavas of Karnataka are matrilineal societies that continue to thrive in a patriarchal country.
Kerala remains separate from the rest of India in many ways. Be it literacy policy, form of government, or cultural practices, this state does not always conform to the ideal that India is known for. Even so with their social structure. Certain tribes have remained matrilineal, where the decision-making power rests with the eldest female of the family.
The Nairs and Ezhavas of Kerala, and Bunts and Billavas of Karnataka are matrilineal societies that continue to thrive in a patriarchal country. Image source: wikimedia commons
A male member, who is the close confidante of the matriarch is chosen. He plays a crucial role in representing the male members of his family, and his opinion is highly valued. He is called karavanan. The men reside in separate rooms or in separate houses, and do not interfere in the upbringing of children. Property is also passed down along the lineage of the eldest female. Among the Nairs, matriarchy is more prominently adhered to than the Ezhavas, who have some patrilocal connections.
In Karnataka, the Bunts and Billavas belong to the Tuluva ethnic group. They are also a predominantly matriarchal society, founded on the belief in a legend. Their matrilineal descent is known as Aliyasantana.
The story is told of a demon who threatened to destroy a kingdom if the king did not sacrifice his sons, but the king's sister comes forward to offer her children in sacrifice for the sake of the kingdom. The demon is touched and does not destroy the city. Since then, the kingdom, or the property is inherited through female lineage.
In Karnataka, the Bunts and Billavas belong to the Tuluva ethnic group. They are also a predominantly matriarchal society, founded on the belief in a legend. Image source: wikimedia commons
In the recent past, many of these matriarchal societies have been reduced to matrilineal societies by certain governmental laws. They fall under the patriarchal scheme of the rest of the state but have reserved the right to pass on property and heritage through the female line. In the North east of India, matriarchal dominance is far more resilient than the south.
Keywords: Bunts, Billava, Nair, Ezhava, Aliyasantana, Matrilineal, South India, Karnataka, Kerala
Apple inc. Is an American multinational tech firm specialized in consumer electronics, computer programs, and internet services founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in 1976 to manufacture Wozniak's Apple iComputer. It is the world's top tech company in turnover (totaling $274.5 billion in 2020) and its most valuable corporation. Apple is the fourth-largest PC seller by unit sales and the fourth-largest smartphone manufacturer in the world.
Apple has revealed a slew of new products at a special launch event that has been long-awaited. On the day of the live event, Apple announced the iPad mini, Apple Watch Series 7, iPhone 13 mini, and iPhone 13, as well as the iPhone 13 Pro and iPhone 13 Pro Max.
Apple has revealed a slew of new products at a special launch event that has been long-awaited. | Photo by Daniel Romero on Unsplash
In the first major product announcement during the event, Apple introduced the newest edition of the iPad and a 5G-capable iPad Mini.
iPad: The 10.2-inch iPad is equipped with a solid A13 processor that delivers 20 percent quicker performance than the preceding version. According to Apple, it is now three times faster than a Chromebook. A new 12MP ultra-wide camera with Center Stage, which utilizes machine learning to optimize the front-facing camera during FaceTime video chats, as well as more incredible accessory support, including compatibility with the first-generation Apple Pencil, are among the new features. For 64GB of storage, the iPad costs $329.
iPad Mini: In addition to reduced borders and more rounded edges, the 8.3-inch iPad mini also has improved front and back cameras. A liquid retina display, USB-C compatibility, magnetic support for the Apple Pencil, an enhanced speaker system, and new hues such as pink and purple are all features of the new Apple iPad Mini. The starting price is $499.
In the first major product announcement during the event, Apple introduced the newest edition of the iPad and a 5G-capable iPad Mini. | Photo by Leone Venter on Unsplash
The other major unveiled products include:
iPhone 13 and other variants: The iPhone 13 range is almost identical to the iPhone 12 lineup, with a 5.4-inch iPhone 13 Mini, a 6.1-inch iPhone 13, a 6.1-inch iPhone 13 Pro, and a 6.7-inch iPhone 13 Pro Max. It was also revealed that the Watch Series 7 has a smaller "S7" processor, which may allow for a bigger battery or other components to be housed in a smaller footprint. The gadgets have a revolutionary design that includes a dual-camera system, placed diagonally. Apple's iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 mini have longer-lasting batteries than the previous generation of devices. In addition, Apple claims that the iPhone 13 will have a battery life that is 2.5 hours longer than the iPhone 12, and the iPhone 13 mini will have a battery life that is 1.5 hours longer. A more energy-efficient display, an upgraded 5G chip, and functionality called "Cinematic Mode," similar to the famous Portrait mode function but is only available for movies, are among the other enhancements. The A15 Bionic chip present in the iPhone 13 and iPhone 13 mini is also used in the 6.1-inch iPhone 13 Pro and 6.7-inch iPhone 13 Pro Max, also 6.1-inch devices. However, it also has a five-core CPU, which promises graphics that are 50% quicker than previous models. Other notable features of the Pro devices include a brilliant Super Retna XDR display with a higher refresh rate and long-lasting battery life. Now, for the price, it will start at $699 for the iPhone 13 mini with 128 GB of storage, $799 for the iPhone 13 with 128 GB of storage, and the Pro and Pro Max have starting prices of $999 $1,099, respectively.
Apple Watch Series 7: The new Apple Watch Series 7, which is smaller and has a larger screen than its previous model, was introduced by Apple on Wednesday. There is a 20% increase in screen size over Series 6 on the new watch. A complete keyboard that you can touch or slide to write out text messages can show 50% more text. It starts at $399.
Keywords: Apple, iPad, iPad Mini, iPhone 13, iPhone 13 pro, iPhone 13 Pro Max, iPhone Mini, Apple event 2021