Wednesday November 20, 2019

Decoding Adharma: How one should not speak

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Adharma

Gleanings from Hindu scriptures: Part 15

Hindu scriptures classify actions into Dharma (righteousness and duty) and Adharma (unrighteousness and prohibited) depending upon whether an action leads to the overall welfare of the person and the society, or whether the actions result in harm, pain, and sorrow respectively. These actions can further be classified into three ways: actions committed through the body, through speech, and through the mind.

In the last installment, it was seen how a person can commit various Adharmic actions through his body, which will ultimately lead to sorrow and suffering for the individual as well as for the society. In this installment, let us take up the unrighteous actions that should be avoided. Manu Smriti (12.6) says:

pArushyamanrutam chaiva paishUnyam chApi sarvaShaH |

asambadda pralApashcha vAngmayaM syAchchaturviDhaM ||

Abusing others and speaking harshly; speaking untruth; gossiping and backbiting, and talking idly and without context, shall be the four kinds of (unrighteous) verbal action.

In a single verse of two lines, Manu Smriti beautifully captures the very essence of human conduct. It clearly gives guidelines about what one should not speak and how one should not speak.

The very first action of speech which is considered unrighteous is ‘paarushyam’, which means speaking harshly such that it causes hurt to the listener. In other words, Manu Smriti is asking people to speak sweetly and calmly. But, in the present society, we witness the very opposite of this. Fathers abuse their sons, daughters talk back to their mothers, bosses shout at their employees, house owners shout at their servants, and even strangers abuse each other over trivial things.

Use of Abuse and harsh language, in many a sense, has become an inseparable part of the current social norms and media narratives. On TV, one can easily witness panelists and anchors shouting at the top of their voices, movies that are full of people using expletives in frustration. The assimilation of the act of shouting and cursing has seeped in so deep that they are today recognized as a ‘normal’ way of expressing frustration and anger.

Then, of course, there are people who cannot speak even a single sentence without inserting a word or two of abuse and there are those who love to insult and humiliate others. Harsh speech not only refers to using expletives, but also to using speech as a medium to insult and humiliate others. Humiliation has become the single most important tool used by corporate bosses to get works done in their offices.

Thus, speech and communication in the present society has been completely contaminated with harsh speech. People do not realize that hurting someone, or causing stress or depression to a person is as unrighteous an action as causing physical violence. For this reason, Manu Smriti has upheld ‘harsh speech’ as the very first of Adharmic actions through speech and has advised people to avoid it.

The second tenet is ‘untruth’, lies, and distortions. Hinduism has given highest importance to Satya or Truth. Thus, the famous saying ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’. The present conditions often force people to lie day in and day out. Sometimes speaking falsehoods are a compulsion and at some other times, they are done for simple fun. The habit of speaking falsehood becomes so ingrained in some people, that they become compulsive liars and actually end up being dishonest to their own selves.

Lies and distortions are the foundation of dishonesty and corruption. Speaking truth is at the heart of practicing righteous Dharmic life. And falsehoods take one to exactly the opposite destination- Adharma. Hence, the scriptures urge people to try to adhere to the truth, and cultivate pure, pleasant, and truthful speech. It may not always be practical to speak the truth in the present complicated life circumstances. Yet, one must strive hard to adhere to the truth to the best of one’s abilities. Otherwise, once a person gives himself to falsehood and corruption, it is very difficult to return to the righteous path and such a person will ultimately end up in pain and suffering.

The third tenet of Adharma is ‘gossiping and bitching’, another very common phenomenon that can be observed in the society. Manu Smriti explicitly asks people to avoid wasting time in this useless activity. Rumor mongering can be considered as one of the worst kind of actions that a person commits. Backbiting and spreading rumors are nothing but verbal violence committed on the victim, which has the potential to defame and ruin the reputation of an innocent victim. Thus, this behavior must be completely avoided.

The final tenet of Adharma through speech is speaking idly and without context. This phenomenon can often be observed among people who visit temples for example. Temples are places of worship and meditation. Yet, most people who visit temples are engaged in conversations on a wide range of issues, ranging from household works to political issues. A similar scene can be witnessed in a marriage or at a funeral ceremony as well. Then, there are some people who are compulsive speakers, and some, who love to intervene in any and every conversation that other people are having, to show off their knowledge. This behavior is being called as ‘Adharma’ because it is sheer nuisance and disturbs others.

Thus, Manu Smriti pretty much sums up the whole art of speech. These actions of using swear words, speaking falsehoods, gossiping, and talking too much, may appear small and trivial things. But, to avoid them in everyday life requires constant vigilance and self-control. Though they appears trivial, these may lead a person to great trouble and suffering. The best example can be scores of defamation cases that are filed across the country every year. Perjury or speaking falsehood under oath is treated as a great crime.

These actions of speech are considered as Adharma not only because they are unethical and unrighteous, but also because they cause huge discomfort and pain to others and ultimately land the perpetrator in hardships and suffering. Thus, people should strive hard to adhere to Dharma and avoid Adharma in body, speech, and mind. We will take up the Adharmic actions committed through the mind in the next installment of the series.

More in this segment:

Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 1
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 2
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 3
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 4
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 5
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 6
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 7
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 8
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 9
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 10
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 11
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 12
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 13
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 14

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Fireworks Might Extinguish the Flame of Laxmi Puja

We can have various kind of festival enjoyments on Festivals but without ever causing problem to others and the environment

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Fireworks
There is no mention in any corners of the voluminous scriptures of Fireworks blasting during a PUJAS that “upset” the harmony of peace and tranquility of others. Pixabay

BY SALIL GEWALI

If one wants to connect Hindu culture with the senseless bursting of crackers and boisterous fun then he is absolutely wrong. There is no mention in any corners of the voluminous scriptures of Fireworks blasting during a PUJAS that “upset” the harmony of peace and tranquility of others. To disturb others’ tranquility falls under the heading of vices. Preserving the sanctity of the environment, and more importantly, inner purity of mind and heart is the “prime doctrine” of SANATAN DHARMA which is popularly known as Hinduism. This Hindu culture now seemingly run the risk of having been defined by other communities with what is not very pleasant to hear.

Fireworks
It should not be misunderstood ever that Hinduism disapproves of all kinds of fun and frolic. No, it is never so.  We can have various kind of festival enjoyments but without ever causing problem to others and the environment without Using Fireworks.

I’ve overheard many toxic comments against this blatant desecration of auspicious “puja celebrations”. During Holi festival, many people fear to move out of their homes, particularly in certain the plane areas in India. You might be blasted with a bucketful of dirty water by pranksters from the 5th floor of the building. Is this sadism the part of the puja and holi celebration? One is afraid, with each passing year, this festival of color of joy, though having strong spiritual significance, has only painted the very face of Hindu culture with vulgarity and depravity.

Fireworks
If one wants to connect Hindu culture with the senseless bursting of crackers, Fireworks and boisterous fun then he is absolutely wrong.

Matter of fact, peace in one’s life and his efforts to help bring peace in others’ lives is essentially the fundamental basis of Hindu culture and festivals. Practically speaking, there is no devotion to God without “peace”.  Therefore, “Shanti” (peace) is one of the most paramount peace mantras in Sanskrit, not “Ashanti” which, of late, is the hallmark of such Hindu puja celebrations. The profound objective behind this peace mantra, as propounded in Upanishads, inspired even one of the greatest poets of the 20th Century – TS Eliot who underlined it with the purpose of life which he brought out in his epic poem – The Waste Land. That poem finally ends with the same peace mantra — Shanti, Shanti, Shanti.

Fireworks
TS Eliot who underlined it with the purpose of life which he brought out in his epic poem – The Waste Land.

It should not be misunderstood ever that Hinduism disapproves of all kinds of fun and frolic. No, it is never so.  We can have various kind of festival enjoyments but without ever causing problem to others and the environment. There are sufficient mentions of fun and frolic, merrymaking even in the spiritual activities — like Krishna LilaRam Lila…; and there exist endless nritya shashtras for healthy recreation. But they all are within the “purview of Dharma”. Ancient sages in their meditation conceived and authored a number of treatises in which we find the elaborate approaches and procedures to evolve oneself spiritually through fun-filled dances and music. There are “ragas and layas” (musical modes and rhythm), which are meant to “recharge” the mind for the meditative concentrationThe objective behind being to climb up the ladders of realization of oneness and universal uniformity.

Fireworks
There are sufficient mentions of fun and frolic, merrymaking even in the spiritual activities — like Krishna Lila, Ram Lila…; and there exist endless nritya shashtras for healthy recreation and not Fireworks. But they all are within the “purview of Dharma”.

However, there is absolutely no scope or prescription for deriving pleasure or fun by causing pain and anxieties to others? How come bursting high decibel fireworks at 2 AM or 3 AM or 4 AM is puja? In fact, it is called “adharma” or irreligion leading to self-degeneration.

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Therefore, it is DIYA, as per Vedas, which symbolizes the LIGHT to dispel the darkness of ignorance, the darkness of vices, and bring forth the light of knowledge to awake the “inherent” divinity. Goddess Laxmi is the “flame” of feminine ENERGY in the infinite cosmic creation. So, indulging in earsplitting fireworks and causing continuous problem to HER creatures, and HER environment, is totally against the fundamental principle of the devotion in Hinduism. Very sadly, with the blasting of the fireworks in the name of Goddess Laxmi we have invariably set off the tank of vices alone.

Salil Gewali is a well-Known Writer and Author of ‘Great Minds on India’. Twitter: @SGewali