Friday March 23, 2018

Decoding Adharma: How one should not speak


Gleanings from Hindu scriptures: Part 15

Hindu scriptures classify actions into Dharma (righteousness and duty) and Adharma (unrighteousness and prohibited) depending upon whether an action leads to the overall welfare of the person and the society, or whether the actions result in harm, pain, and sorrow respectively. These actions can further be classified into three ways: actions committed through the body, through speech, and through the mind.

In the last installment, it was seen how a person can commit various Adharmic actions through his body, which will ultimately lead to sorrow and suffering for the individual as well as for the society. In this installment, let us take up the unrighteous actions that should be avoided. Manu Smriti (12.6) says:

pArushyamanrutam chaiva paishUnyam chApi sarvaShaH |

asambadda pralApashcha vAngmayaM syAchchaturviDhaM ||

Abusing others and speaking harshly; speaking untruth; gossiping and backbiting, and talking idly and without context, shall be the four kinds of (unrighteous) verbal action.

In a single verse of two lines, Manu Smriti beautifully captures the very essence of human conduct. It clearly gives guidelines about what one should not speak and how one should not speak.

The very first action of speech which is considered unrighteous is ‘paarushyam’, which means speaking harshly such that it causes hurt to the listener. In other words, Manu Smriti is asking people to speak sweetly and calmly. But, in the present society, we witness the very opposite of this. Fathers abuse their sons, daughters talk back to their mothers, bosses shout at their employees, house owners shout at their servants, and even strangers abuse each other over trivial things.

Use of Abuse and harsh language, in many a sense, has become an inseparable part of the current social norms and media narratives. On TV, one can easily witness panelists and anchors shouting at the top of their voices, movies that are full of people using expletives in frustration. The assimilation of the act of shouting and cursing has seeped in so deep that they are today recognized as a ‘normal’ way of expressing frustration and anger.

Then, of course, there are people who cannot speak even a single sentence without inserting a word or two of abuse and there are those who love to insult and humiliate others. Harsh speech not only refers to using expletives, but also to using speech as a medium to insult and humiliate others. Humiliation has become the single most important tool used by corporate bosses to get works done in their offices.

Thus, speech and communication in the present society has been completely contaminated with harsh speech. People do not realize that hurting someone, or causing stress or depression to a person is as unrighteous an action as causing physical violence. For this reason, Manu Smriti has upheld ‘harsh speech’ as the very first of Adharmic actions through speech and has advised people to avoid it.

The second tenet is ‘untruth’, lies, and distortions. Hinduism has given highest importance to Satya or Truth. Thus, the famous saying ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’. The present conditions often force people to lie day in and day out. Sometimes speaking falsehoods are a compulsion and at some other times, they are done for simple fun. The habit of speaking falsehood becomes so ingrained in some people, that they become compulsive liars and actually end up being dishonest to their own selves.

Lies and distortions are the foundation of dishonesty and corruption. Speaking truth is at the heart of practicing righteous Dharmic life. And falsehoods take one to exactly the opposite destination- Adharma. Hence, the scriptures urge people to try to adhere to the truth, and cultivate pure, pleasant, and truthful speech. It may not always be practical to speak the truth in the present complicated life circumstances. Yet, one must strive hard to adhere to the truth to the best of one’s abilities. Otherwise, once a person gives himself to falsehood and corruption, it is very difficult to return to the righteous path and such a person will ultimately end up in pain and suffering.

The third tenet of Adharma is ‘gossiping and bitching’, another very common phenomenon that can be observed in the society. Manu Smriti explicitly asks people to avoid wasting time in this useless activity. Rumor mongering can be considered as one of the worst kind of actions that a person commits. Backbiting and spreading rumors are nothing but verbal violence committed on the victim, which has the potential to defame and ruin the reputation of an innocent victim. Thus, this behavior must be completely avoided.

The final tenet of Adharma through speech is speaking idly and without context. This phenomenon can often be observed among people who visit temples for example. Temples are places of worship and meditation. Yet, most people who visit temples are engaged in conversations on a wide range of issues, ranging from household works to political issues. A similar scene can be witnessed in a marriage or at a funeral ceremony as well. Then, there are some people who are compulsive speakers, and some, who love to intervene in any and every conversation that other people are having, to show off their knowledge. This behavior is being called as ‘Adharma’ because it is sheer nuisance and disturbs others.

Thus, Manu Smriti pretty much sums up the whole art of speech. These actions of using swear words, speaking falsehoods, gossiping, and talking too much, may appear small and trivial things. But, to avoid them in everyday life requires constant vigilance and self-control. Though they appears trivial, these may lead a person to great trouble and suffering. The best example can be scores of defamation cases that are filed across the country every year. Perjury or speaking falsehood under oath is treated as a great crime.

These actions of speech are considered as Adharma not only because they are unethical and unrighteous, but also because they cause huge discomfort and pain to others and ultimately land the perpetrator in hardships and suffering. Thus, people should strive hard to adhere to Dharma and avoid Adharma in body, speech, and mind. We will take up the Adharmic actions committed through the mind in the next installment of the series.

More in this segment:

Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 1
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 2
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 3
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 4
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 5
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 6
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 7
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 8
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 9
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 10
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 11
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures – Part 12
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 13
Gleanings from Hindu Scriptures- Part 14

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Life Lessons We All Should Learn From Lord Shiva

There are lot's if life lessons that one can learn from this Hindu deity

There are many life lessons that one can learn from the philosophies of Lord Shiva. Wikimedia Commons
There are many life lessons that one can learn from the philosophies of Lord Shiva. Wikimedia Commons

By Ruchika Verma

  • Lord Shiva is the supreme Hindu Deity
  • He is a symbol of peace and tranquillity
  • There are lot’s if life lessons that one can learn from this Hindu deity

Lord Shiva as everyone knows is a Hindu God. He is one of the Trinity and is the principal deity of Hinduism.  God Shiva is considered the “destroyer of evil and the transformer” of the world. The Birth and history of Lord Shiva are topics of great discussions and confusions.

Lord Shiva is one of the principle deity of hinduism. Wikimedia Commons
Lord Shiva is one of the principle deity of Hinduism. Wikimedia Commons

Lord Shiva is known to have no end and no beginning, yet, the origin of his birth is a much sought-after topic for several generations. Many ‘Puranas’ claims Shiva to be ‘aja’ meaning the one who has no birth. Some other scriptures claim that Lord Shiva was born out of Lod Narayana or Lord Vishnu. However, the authenticity of all the claims remain unclear, and there is still a solid mystery which surrounds the origin and birth of Shiva.

Shiva is also known Mahadev, i.e., the gods of all gods and rightly so. Throughout the Hindu mythology, Shiva has been portrayed as a tranquil and peaceful figure who grants all prayers of his followers and devotees. His another name is ‘Bhole Bhandari’ because of his innocent nature.

Lord Shiva is known for his peace and tranquillity. Pixabay
Lord Shiva is known for his peace and tranquillity. Pixabay

However, other than his peaceful nature, the other thing Lord Shiva is famous for is his flaring temper. Indian mythology is full of stories about Lord Shiva causing mass destruction due to his anger. The opening of his third eye is said to cause mass destruction.

Also Read: Enigmatic Mount Kailash: The abode of Lord Shiva

Lord Shiva’s appearance is a beautiful shade of blue because of him consuming the poison from the sea to save the world. However, just like his body is shades of blue there are many shades to his personality as well. Here are few life lessons of Lord Shiva that we all need to take a note of.

  • Come what may never tolerate the evil. Being destroyer of the evil himself, Shiva teaches us to never tolerate or bow down in front of the evil.
  • Self-control is the key to living a fulfilled life. Excess is of everything is bad and losing control ourselves is worse. One should always have a control over themselves to live a successful and fulfilled life.
  • Materialistic happiness is temporary. To be happy, be adjustable like water. Shiva says that attaching our happiness to earthy, material things won’t give us long-lasting happiness.
  • Keeping calm is very important. Lord Shiva used to meditate for hours and is easily the epitome of calmness and that’s what he advocates too.
  • Desires lead to destruction. Shiva believes that desires lead to obsessions which in turn leads to destruction. Never desire more than what you deserve. Be happy with what you have and work hard for what you want to achieve.
  • Respect your family. Lord Shiva is husband to Goddess Parvati and father to Lord Ganesha and Lord Kartikeya. He respected his children and especially wife a lot. Respecting one’s  family is very important for living a successful life.
  • Control your ego and let go of pride. Ego prevents us from achieving greatness. Let go of your pride and control your ego to live a fulfilled life.
  • Everything is temporary. Everything in this world is temporary. Time changes as do we and our choices and desires. It is better to let go of all the ‘moh maya’ and live in the moment happily with what we already have.