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Flowing water filled Gale Crater on Mars: Indian-origin scientist

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Washington: Around 3.3-3.8 billion years ago, a series of streams and lakes existed on the Red Planet, filling the Gale Crater with sediment deposited as layers that formed the foundation for the mountain named Mouth Sharp, an Indian-origin scientist has revealed.

According to Ashwin Vasavada, project scientist with NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the Red Planet appears to have had a more massive atmosphere billions of years ago than it does today, with an active hydrosphere capable of storing water in long-lived lakes.

The MSL team has concluded that this water helped to fill Gale Crater, Curiosity’s landing site.

“Observations from Curiosity rover suggest that a series of long-lived streams and lakes existed at some point in the past, delivering sediment that slowly built up the lower layers of Mount Sharp,” explained Vasavada.

Using Curiosity data, MSL scientists have pieced together an increasingly coherent and compelling story about the evolution of this region of Mars.

Before Curiosity landed on Mars, scientists proposed that Gale Crater had filled with layers of sediments.

Some hypotheses implied that the sediments accumulated from wind-blown dust and sand whereas others focused on the possibility that sediment layers were deposited in ancient streams and lakes.

The latest results indicate that these wetter scenarios were correct for the lower portions of Mount Sharp.

“During the traverse of Gale, we have noticed patterns in the geology where we saw evidence of ancient fast-moving streams with coarser gravel as well as places where streams appear to have emptied out into bodies of standing water,” Vasavada emphasised.

The prediction was that we should start seeing water-deposited, fine-grained rocks closer to Mount Sharp.

“Now that we have arrived, we are seeing finely laminated mud-stones in abundance. These silty layers in the strata are interpreted as ancient lake deposits,” he pointed out.

“These finely laminated mud-stones are very similar to those we see on Earth,” added Woody Fischer, professor of geobiology and coauthor of the paper.

The mud-stones indicates the presence of bodies of standing water in the form of lakes that remained for long periods of time, possibly repeatedly expanding and contracting during hundreds to millions of years.

These lakes deposited the sediment that eventually formed the lower portion of the mountain.

A lingering question surrounds the original source of the water that carried sediment into the crater.

For flowing water to have existed on the surface, Mars must have had a thicker atmosphere and warmer climate.

Curiosity has been exploring Gale Crater since August 2012.

In mid-September 2014, the rover reached the foothills of Mount Sharp. Curiosity has been exploring the base of the mountain since then.

The new findings were published in the journal Science.

(IANS)

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Anticipated Problems That May Effect NASA’s Mars Mission

According to results from the first eight analog space crews, presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in Washington, D.C., the astronauts are able to successfully complete tasks between 20 and 60 per cent of the time.

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NASA has formalised plans to send a manned mission to Mars, a journey that could involve 250 million miles of travel on a small spacecraft.  Pixabay

Researchers are developing a predictive model to help NASA anticipate conflicts and communication breakdowns among crew members and tick off problems that may make or break the Mission to Mars.

NASA has formalised plans to send a manned mission to Mars, a journey that could involve 250 million miles of travel on a small spacecraft.

To understand the psychological demands of this Mars journey, Northwestern University has charted a multi-phase study conducted in two analog environments — HERA in the Johnson Space Center in Houston and the SIRIUS Mission in the NEK analog located in the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) in Russia.

The varsity will study the behaviour of analog astronaut crews on mock missions, complete with isolation, sleep deprivation, specially designed tasks and mission control, which mimics real space travel with delayed communication.

Mars
NASA has formalised plans to send a manned mission to Mars, a journey that could involve 250 million miles of travel on a small spacecraft. 
Pixabay

“Astronauts are super humans. They are people who are incredibly physically fit and extremely smart,” said Leslie DeChurch, Professor at Northwestern.

“We’re taking an already state-of-the-art crew selection system and making it even better by finding the values, traits and other characteristics that will allow NASA to compose crews that will get along,” DeChurch added.

HERA’s capsule simulator houses astronauts for up to 45 days — a mock mission control outside the capsule — that augments the realism with sound effects, vibrations and communication delays.

space
According to results from the first eight analog space crews, presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in Washington, D.C., the astronauts are able to successfully complete tasks between 20 and 60 per cent of the time. Pixabay

Those on the inside undergo sleep deprivation and try to perform tasks. The researchers collect moment-to-moment metrics about individual performance, moods, psychosocial adaptation and more.

According to results from the first eight analog space crews, presented at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) annual meeting in Washington, D.C., the astronauts are able to successfully complete tasks between 20 and 60 per cent of the time.

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The next phase of the research, which began on February 15, involves using the model to predict breakdowns and problems a new HERA crew will experience and making changes to “who works with whom, on what, and when”.

The experiment on the SIRIUS analog in Moscow, will begin on March 15, where four Russians and two Americans, will undertake a 120-day fictional mission around the moon, including a moon landing operation. (IANS)