Sunday February 18, 2018

Genetic differences lead to failure of anti-HIV drug

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Washington, Genetic variations and not complying with treatment regimens may account for some failures of an anti-HIV drug to treat and prevent the infection.

335238FA-F319-41E1-A55AB94B28EB1600The drug Tenofovir, marketed as Viread, is processed differently according to cell locations, the study said.

This is to see if the drug is eventually marketed as a topical gel, it can work differently depending on whether it is applied to the vagina or the rectum.

“Our results suggest that in future, before prescribing tenofovir to a patient, a doctor could order genetic testing and know in advance if it works, and prescribe a different drug if it won’t,” said Namandje Bumpus, associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

In the study described in the journal EBio-Medicine, the team focused on a search for the human enzymes that convert tenofovir from its original form to an activated one that combats HIV.

The team “knocked out” genes for phosphate-adding enzymes one by one, then exposed the tissues’ cells to tenofovir.

They found that the enzyme called pyruvate kinase was different from that which performed the second activation step in the colorectal tissues.

The team sequenced the genes of 142 women who had participated in a clinical trial of tenofovir to look for genetic variations that might have affected the function of the enzyme.

They found 71 such variants, several of which a computer model predicted would make the enzyme ineffective.

Altogether, eight percent of the women had genetic variants that were likely to make them unable to convert tenofovir to its activated form.

“Tenofovir has been shown in trials to be very effective, so when it does not work, researchers and clinicians tend to assume the individual just was not taking the drug as directed,” Bumpus said.

(IANS)

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HIV Infected Smokers More likely to die of lung cancer than AIDS, Reveals Indian-origin Researcher

Smoking kills! A recent research reveals a vicious reality about the people infected with HIV, who loves to smoke, are more likely to die from lung cancer than from AIDS.

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Cigarette smoking is injurious to health. Pixabay

New York, September 20, 2017: People living with HIV who adhere to antiretroviral therapy, but smoke tobacco cigarettes are more likely to die from lung cancer than from AIDS, a study led by an Indian-origin researcher has revealed.

The findings showed that overall people with HIV who take antiviral medicines, but who also smoke are six to 13 times more likely to die from lung cancer than from HIV/AIDS, depending on the intensity of smoking and their sex.

“Smoking and HIV are a particularly bad combination when it comes to lung cancer,” said lead author Krishna Reddy, MD, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH).

“Lung cancer is now one of the leading killers of people with HIV, but most of these deaths can be prevented,” added Rochelle Walensky, Professor at Harvard Medical School.

Among men who continued to be heavy smokers, an estimated 29 percent would die of lung cancer by age 80, as would 23 per cent of moderate smokers and 19 per cent of light smokers.

For women who continued to be heavy smokers, an estimated 29 percent would die of lung cancer by age 80, as would 21 per cent of moderate smokers and 17 per cent of light smokers.

“The data tell us that now is the time for action: smoking cessation programmes should be integrated into HIV care just like antiviral therapy,” Reddy said in the paper published in the journal JAMA Internal Medicine.

However, among those who managed to quit smoking at age 40, only about six per cent die of lung cancer.

“Quitting smoking is one of the most important things that people with HIV can do to improve their health and live longer,” suggested Travis Baggett, Assistant Professor at the Harvard Medical School.

ALSO READ: Cases of Glaucoma show a rising trend in India, can be caused by Smoking: Doctors

Besides reducing the risk of lung cancer, quitting will also decrease their risk of other diseases such as heart attack, stroke and emphysema, the researchers said. (IANS)

 

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