Friday May 25, 2018

Genetic differences lead to failure of anti-HIV drug

0
//
46
Republish
Reprint

Washington, Genetic variations and not complying with treatment regimens may account for some failures of an anti-HIV drug to treat and prevent the infection.

335238FA-F319-41E1-A55AB94B28EB1600The drug Tenofovir, marketed as Viread, is processed differently according to cell locations, the study said.

This is to see if the drug is eventually marketed as a topical gel, it can work differently depending on whether it is applied to the vagina or the rectum.

“Our results suggest that in future, before prescribing tenofovir to a patient, a doctor could order genetic testing and know in advance if it works, and prescribe a different drug if it won’t,” said Namandje Bumpus, associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

In the study described in the journal EBio-Medicine, the team focused on a search for the human enzymes that convert tenofovir from its original form to an activated one that combats HIV.

The team “knocked out” genes for phosphate-adding enzymes one by one, then exposed the tissues’ cells to tenofovir.

They found that the enzyme called pyruvate kinase was different from that which performed the second activation step in the colorectal tissues.

The team sequenced the genes of 142 women who had participated in a clinical trial of tenofovir to look for genetic variations that might have affected the function of the enzyme.

They found 71 such variants, several of which a computer model predicted would make the enzyme ineffective.

Altogether, eight percent of the women had genetic variants that were likely to make them unable to convert tenofovir to its activated form.

“Tenofovir has been shown in trials to be very effective, so when it does not work, researchers and clinicians tend to assume the individual just was not taking the drug as directed,” Bumpus said.

(IANS)

Click here for reuse options!
Copyright 2015 NewsGram

Next Story

Newly Developed Tool to Battle HIV in Women

This novel tool may soon help women to combat HIV transmission

0
//
24
HIV Aids is a deadly disease.
HIV AIDS

Scientists have developed a new tool that can potentially help protect women from being infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

The tool — a vaginal implant — decreases the number of cells that the HIV virus can target in a woman’s genital tract.

Unlike conventional methods of HIV prevention such as condoms or anti-HIV drugs, the novel implant takes advantage of some people’s natural immunity to the virus.

The deadly disease of HIV is now preventable.
HIV is now preventable.

HIV infects the body by corrupting T-cells that are mobilised by the immune system when the virus enters a person’s body.

“We know that some drugs taken orally never make it to the vaginal tract, so this implant could provide a more reliable way to encourage T-cells not to respond to infection and therefore more reliably and cheaply prevent transmission,” said Emmanuel Ho, professor at the University of Waterloo in Canada.

When the T-cells stay resting and do not attempt to fight the virus they are not infected and the HIV virus is not transmitted between people.

When the T-cells stay resting, it is referred to as being immune quiescent.

However, “what we don’t know yet is if this can be a stand-alone option for preventing HIV transmission or if it might be best used in conjunction with other prevention strategies”, Ho added, in a paper appearing in the Journal of Controlled Release.

Also Read: Severe Symptoms Of Menopause Might Soar The Risk Of Heart Diseases In Women

The implant is composed of a hollow tube and two pliable arms to hold it in place.

It contains hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) which is disseminated slowly through the porous material of the tube and absorbed by the walls of the vaginal tract.

The implants were tested in an animal model and a significant reduction in T-cell activation was observed, meaning that the vaginal tract was demonstrating an immune quiescent state, the researchers said.  IANS

Next Story