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Girls on Wheels: Bicycle Programs in developing Countries like India and Kenya help Children to get to School

In developing countries, attending school can be a daily struggle for some children.

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Indian girls go to a school on a bicycle at Roja Mayong village about 40 kilometers (25 miles) east of Gauhati, India. VOA
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In developing countries, attending school can be a daily struggle for some children. They may walk several kilometers to school because their families do not have money to send them on buses or other forms of transportation.

With schools far away, and little money to pay for transport costs, parents worry about the safety of their children walking to school.

So, a number of parents keep their children at home. Or the child drops out of school: they leave without completing their studies.

These and other barriers to school attendance are the reality for many girls in poor countries.

But now, programs in two developing countries are helping to change that. The programs are giving girls “pedal power” — transportation in the form of bicycles.

Power of the pedal

Rural areas of poor countries often have few secondary schools. So, it is common for students there to travel great distances to attend classes.

Bihar is the poorest state in India. Ninety percent of the state’s population lives in rural areas.

Until 2007, too many teenage girls in Bihar were dropping out of school. For Nahid Farzana, her home was 6 kilometers from school. And, her father did not have money for bus fare, she told the Associated Press.

But, that same year, the state government began offering bicycles to girls to help them get to school. The program has been so effective that three nearby states are now doing the same.

And the results are measurable. A 2014 study found that giving bicycles to teenage girls in India increased their secondary school enrollment by 30 percent. It also helped many of them stay in school long enough to take their final exams.

Western Kenya is experiencing success with a similar program. Until recently, there was a high risk of local girls dropping out of school and then becoming pregnant.

Loise Luseno is a 16-year-old girl from Kakamega, Kenya. In the past, she had to walk about 10 kilometers to reach school. Last year, she dropped out temporarily because of the distance.

Loise Luseno in class, VOA
Loise Luseno in class, VOA

Members of her family work as subsistence farmers. They earn just about $30 a month — not nearly enough for food, school costs and transport.

But, a few months ago, Luseno went back to school – this time on a bicycle. Her new form of transportation was provided by World Bicycle Relief, an American-based group.

Hurdles for girls

Christina Kwauk is an expert on girls’ education at the Brookings Institution, a research organization in Washington, D.C.

Kwauk recently told VOA that, in many countries, girls face a long list of barriers to school attendance.

Sometimes, the issue is that a society has firm ideas about what girls “can and shouldn’t do as they become young women,” including whether they should receive an education.

Luseno experienced this. When girls in her community walked to school, motorbike riders would stop them on the road. They would offer the girls rides to school. Then, they would try to persuade the girls to drop out.

Kwauk says another reason girls may not attend school is their family. Parents might believe that losing children’s help at home can cause the family to lose money.

For example, a poor farming family grows less food without the help of children. Girls are often expected to do this work. In many cases, those household duties include taking care of younger brothers and sisters.

There are also direct financial barriers, says Kwauk, such as school fees, books, and meals. So, in places where families value boys more than girls, and parents have little money, the boys are sent to school.

Indian schoolgirls ride bicycles, received under a Bihar government program of giving bicycles to teenage girls to keep them in school. VOA
Indian schoolgirls ride bicycles, received under a Bihar government program of giving bicycles to teenage girls to keep them in school. VOA

The ups and downs

Even with the success of the bicycles programs, there are still problems.

Ainea Ambulwa teaches at the Bukhaywa secondary school in Kakamega, Kenya. He belongs to a bicycle supervisory committee at the school. He makes sure that the riders are keeping their vehicles in good condition.

Ambulwa says defeating poverty remains a difficult issue.

He says that some families will put heavy things on the bicycles and then they break down. Because the family lacks the money to have the bicycle repaired, the girl can no longer get to school.

World Bicycle Relief is based in Chicago, Illinois. It provides bicycles through another group: World Vision.

In 2015, the two groups launched a bicycle production factory in Kisumu, Kenya. The cost of the bicycle is around $180. That is too much money for most families in rural Kenya.

Bicycle factory in Kisumu, Kenya, VOA
Bicycle factory in Kisumu, Kenya, VOA

But with the help of donors, the program has given away about 7,000 bicycles throughout the country. Most of the people receiving the bikes are girls.

Bicycles decrease the safety risks for girls because the girls get to school quicker, Kwauk explains. It also helps parents not to lose work time taking their girls to school.

Peter Wechuli, the head of the program in Kenya, says the bikes have improved children’s lives. But, he says, the factory was built around 100 kilometres from Kakamega. So, getting the bicycles to needy families can be a problem.

Yet Kwauk calls the bicycle programs “very promising” and a low-cost solution. She says many organizations in wealthier countries would be happy to provide this kind of resource.

I’m Alice Bryant. And I’m Jill Robbins. (VOA)

 

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Women And Girls in Poor Countries are Using Contraceptives More: Report

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni insists Africa needs more people, and has lambasted what he calls "the shrill cries of NGOs about population control."

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family planning, women, men
Health worker Sylvia Marettah Katende displays reproductive health products and information at a family planning exhibition in Kampala, Uganda. VOA

More women and girls in poor countries are using modern contraception, signifying progress in efforts to involve women in family planning, according to a report released Monday.

The number of women and girls using contraceptives in 69 of the world’s poorest countries surpassed 317 million in 2018, representing 46 million more users than in 2012, said the report by Family Planning 2020, a U.N.-backed global advocacy group working to promote rights-based family planning.

Access to modern contraception helped prevent over 119 million unintended pregnancies and averted 20 million unsafe abortions between July 2017 and July 2018, although populations continue to soar across Africa and other low-income countries, the report said.

women
Contraceptives, Wikimedia commons

“The best way to overcome this challenge of rapid population growth is by giving women and girls [the] opportunity to decide how many children they want to have,” Beth Schlachter, executive director of Family Planning 2020, told The Associated Press.

The mix of contraceptive methods has improved significantly in 20 of the surveyed countries, “meaning that more women are able to find the short-term, long-acting, emergency, or permanent method that suits their needs and preferences,” the report said.

But even as millions of poor women use contraceptives, millions more who want to delay or prevent pregnancy are still unable to access it, often due to lack of information, the report said, citing perceived health side-effects and social disapproval as deterrents.

Reproductive Rights, abortion, women
A community health worker holds up contraceptives during a lecture on family planning at a reproductive health clinic run by an NGO in Tondo city, metro Manila. VOA

Under Family Planning 2020, which grew out of a summit on family planning held in London in 2012, donors have pledged millions of dollars to bring contraception to 120 million more women and girls in developing countries by the year 2020.

Many of the 69 countries surveyed for the report are in sub-Saharan Africa, which is witnessing a population boom even as other parts of the world see dropping birth rates. Over half of the global population growth between now and 2050 will take place in Africa, according to U.N. figures.

According to the new report, contraceptive use is growing fastest in Africa, even though the region’s fertility rates remain high.

The most recent U.N. global population report estimates Africa’s fertility rate to be 5.1 births per woman.

women
DMAU is a major step forward in the development of a once-daily ‘male pill

Because the region’s growing population is not backed by substantial rises in family incomes and the development of public infrastructure, there are concerns that a population boom may deepen poverty levels for many Africans.

Over the years, family planning has often been difficult to sell in heavily paternalistic sub-Saharan Africa, with the matter becoming controversial as some African leaders challenge the view that a growing population is bad for the world’s poorest continent.

Also Read: A New Step Towards Contraception for Men

Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni insists Africa needs more people, and has lambasted what he calls “the shrill cries of NGOs about population control.”

In February, President John Magufuli of Tanzania encouraged polygamy, citing the 10 million more women than men in his country in advising men to marry “two or more wives” to reduce the number of single women. (VOA)