Lucknow: During his interactions at Silicon Valley last month when Prime Minister Narendra Modi spoke of social media platforms like Facebook and micro-blogging site Twitter as the new neighbourhoods, little did he know that in Uttar Pradesh, the state that sent him to parliament, this neighbourhood was fast turning fatally dangerous.
Statistics available with the state police suggest this as more and more communal flashpoints in the state over the past one year have been triggered by inflammatory posts, pictures and videos on social networking sites.
From the picture of a slaughtered cow in Dhaka to open requests to collect and stockpile weapons to protect the community, various posts doing the rounds on Facebook, Twitter and even Whatsapp have endangered the fragile peace in the state and in some instances led to communal clashes and loss of lives and property.
Additional Director General of Police (Law and Order) Daljit Chowdhary admitted of the menace being created by such objectionable and inflammatory posts and said that the police were vigilant and acting on everything reported to them. He said that the police, after identifying such elements, were invoking sections 153-A and 295-A of the Indian PeJnal Code (IPC) and the Gangster Act and the National Security Act (NSA) against such people.
Police, however, say that after the Supreme Court struck down the section 66-A, which aided in the arrest of people spreading hatred through computers, their hands have been tied to a large extent. The dangerous proportions that the social media is taking viz-a-viz inciting communal passions can be gauged by the fact that in the last one month, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav had twice got the police to issue a Whatsapp number to which people can send objectionable posts for action.
And the number is flooded with complaints. In the last fortnight, it has got almost 2,500 complaints, a senior police officer said. A lab in Meerut is monitoring these complaints and the state government has also formed a committee under ADG (Technical Services) R.K. Vishwakarma to keep a tab on the social media. This panel would also have SSP Amit Pathak and IG Special Task Force (STF) Sujit Pandey as its members.
The state police have recently written to Twitter India, seeking the removal of certain tweets that were posted in the aftermath of the Dadri lynching. IG Prakash D informed that the DIG (Meerut), who monitors the special lab, has written to Twitter officials requesting that certain tweets be removed while a case has already been registered against the people who posted them.
The social media lab of the UP police, sources said, has also identified 120 catch words which would be kept under watch in future as they are being used by mischief-makers to spread hatred and communal unrest. And, as the UP police go all out against mischief and rumour mongers on the social media, their fear is not misplaced.
In the past, all major communal flash points in the state had the social media somewhere in the jigsaw. In Saharanpur some time back, a woman had posted a picture of a police sub-inspector who was mowed down by a truck.
She said the cop was run over by the truck driver when he tried to stop the truck that was full of cows being taken for slaughter.
It later transpired that the policeman was killed by people involved in illegal mining.
Similar mischief has been done through the social media’s misuse in Muzaffarnagar in 2013 and in Bahraich, Agra and Lucknow to stoke communal passions. A video on YouTube, shared extensively on social media platforms, had led to the Muzaffarnagar riots that left 63 dead and displaced several thousands.
Handicrafts are the products which are mostly made by hand.
The history of Indian handicrafts can be divided into three eras: Pre British, British era, and Post Independence.
Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed in India.
New Delhi, September 28, 2017: Handicrafts in India have a long history. From ancient to the contemporary times, handcrafters have preserved this art. This art has been passed on from one generation to the next. Pottery making, in fact, is one of its forms, whose existence can be traced back to the Harappan Civilization.
What are handicrafts?
Handicrafts are products that are produced either completely by hands or involve tools. Mechanical tools could also be used as long as the manual contribution of the artisan remains the central component of the produced object. The production of these crafts require great skill and represents a particular expression, culture or tradition. Handicrafts could hold a number of values, some of them being aesthetic, cultural, decorative, utilitarian, religious, functional etc.
Historical Perspective of Indian Handicrafts:
To understand the historical perspective of Indian handicrafts, we need to go back in time. Let’s take a look at the development and decline of the artisanal production under three different time periods: before the arrival of British in India, Under colonial rule, and after India got independence.
History of Indian Handicrafts Before the arrival of British:
Art and crafts, as we have already mentioned, has been a tradition in India since long. Textiles, the most important of the Indian handicrafts, reached the zenith of perfection during the Mughal period. While under Mughals, it was the art of weaving and silk spinning that scored refinement; it was metal works, ivory works and jewelry that reached great potential during the Gupta period. The handicrafts production during that time can be divided in four broad categories. The first category dealt with the village economy under the jajmani system, in which the products were articles of daily use. The second category was integrated with the urban areas, where artisans produced crafts mainly for the purpose of sale. The third category concerns the dadni system, in which the merchants advanced cash to the artisans for production. The final category includes the Karkhanas, where skilled artisans produced luxury crafts under the command of kings or high nobles. Handicraft production was the second biggest source of employment in the pre-British India.
History of Indian Handicrafts Under Colonial Rule:
Under the British rule, production of Indian Handicrafts faced a rather sharp decline. When the East India Company was in power, it forced monopoly over the production of artisans from Bengal, and the price of these products were fixed 15-40% lower than their actual market price. What came as the biggest blow to the Indian artisans, however, was the removal of most of the Indian princes and nobles, which as an effect, led to the destruction of the artisan’s major market.
History of Indian Handicrafts Post-Independence:
The plight of the artisans and the cultural importance of artisanal production was taken into accord after India got independent. The establishment of All India Handicrafts Board in November 1952, to look at the problems and find solutions concerning Indian Handicrafts; the Handicrafts and Handloom Export Corporation of India Ltd in 1958, to promote handicrafts exports; Opening of Crafts Mueseum in 1953 in Delhi, to develop people’s interest in handmade Indian goods, all alluded to the idea that India had finally realized the importance of its art and crafts, and did not want to leave any stone unturned for its development.
A brief history and development of different form of handicrafts in India:
Clay craft and pottery: Clay craft is the earliest form of crafts to have existed, in India or in the world. A simple earthenware made of clay or ceramic has been created and used by the rural population for centuries. Potters have had an integral traditional link with the villages. The earthen pottery has only been developing, with the addition of new colors, figures of gods and goddesses, and decorative elements like flowers.
Main centers: Uttar Pradesh (Nizamabad and Chinhat), where the pottery is dark black; Bengal which produces large figures of gods, especially on the occasion of Durga Puja; In Kashmir, Srinagar is the place where special glazed pottery is made; Terra-cotta roof tiles are a tradition in Orissa and Martha Pradesh; both Rajasthan and Karnataka are popular for their black pottery; Manipur in the northeast is also famous for its pottery.
Wood craft: Wood craft is widely produced and used throughout the country, with the most important products being household furnitures, carts and decorative objects. Baskets for storage and Toys, both for play and decoration are also made on a large scale.
Main centers: The elegant use of wood by skilled craftsmen can be seen in the houses at Gujrat and Kerala. Kashmir acquires a special position in this category of craft, with the walnut and deodar being the most favorite woods there. Saharanpur in U.P is also quite famous for its wooden furniture and objects of decoration.
Metal craft: Copper was the most widely used metal in India before Iron joined in. Utensils, jewelry, dagger, axe heads etc in the harappan finds suggest that casting of copper objects made use of moulds. Bronze was also an important metal for the artisan production. The skills of craftsmen on metals are of various types, such as embossing, engraving, moulding etc.
Main centers: Kashmir (Srinagar) and Ladakh (Zanskar) are the two main centres. In Uttar Pradesh, Moradabad, Aligarh, Varanasi are the main centres of metal craft. Kerala specializes in the bell metal, whereas Bidar in Karnataka is noted for its Bidri work. Tribal groups in India also appear to hold their specific metal craft traditions.
Stone craft: Stones, without a shadow of doubt, have been there with humans since the earliest. They have been crafted into various products such as tools, decorative objects, sculptures and even jewelry. Statue of Yakshi of Didarganj is one fine piece of stone sculpture and dates back to the Maurya period. Majestic Qutub Minar in Delhi, and forts at Agra, Delhi, Jaipur are all works of stone craft.
Main centers: Rajasthan due to a large availability of stones tops the list of most prominent places for stone works. Salem district in Tamil Nadu also makes it to the list along with Gaya in Bihar. The stone cutters of Orissa also share a long history with the craft.
Ornaments and jewelry: From grass jewelry to that of gold and diamonds, one can witness great diversity when it comes to ornaments and jewelry in India. Gold, gems, silver, diamonds, other metals and precious stones are some materials used for making ornaments. Bones, horns, sea shells, lac, glass etc are also used in many parts of the country to create ornaments. The Harappan finds revealed a number of ornaments, indicating their existence since long. There are many references in Ramayana and Mahabharata of gold being precious objects.
Main centers: Western ghats and Matheran in Maharashtra are noted for grass ornaments. Gujarat and Rajasthan share a rich and long tradition of jewelry. Kashmir is one of the most prominent places, again, with its exquisite jewelry, Varanasi and Awadh of U.P. are famous for gold studded jewelry.
Textiles: India had had one of the richest traditions of textiles made from different raw materials. It won’t be wrong to say that Indian textiles tend to reflect Indian culture and religious beliefs. Bengal was the chief center of cotton production and Carpet weaving reached its zenith at the time of Mughals. The most commonly knows fabrics are cotton, wool and silk. The three main techniques used for patterning are weaving, embroidery and dyes.
Main centers: Orissa and Andhra Pradesh are famous for ikat fabric, Gujarat and Rajasthan for bandhani, U.P. and Bengal for jamdani fabrics. Rajasthan is also noted for Masoria fabric.
-prepared by Samiksha Goel of NewsGram. Twitter @goel_samiksha
Any kind of physical or mental harm towards women is deemed as “crime against women”
Domestic violence is the most dominant crime against women
Andhra Pradesh state is the highest to report crimes against women in the period of ten years
Sep 20, 2017: A report released by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) suggests that crimes against women have increased violently in the last ten years with an estimated figure of 2.24 million crimes. The figure is also suggestive of the fact: 26 crimes against women are reported every hour, or one complaint every two minutes, reports IndiaSpendanalysis.
The most dominant crime against women with 909,713 cases reported in last decade was ‘cruelty by husbands and relatives’ under section 498‐A of Indian Penal Code (IPC).
‘Assault on women’ booked under section 354 of IPC is the second-most-reported crime against women with 470,556 crimes.
‘Kidnapping and abduction of women’ are the third-most-reported crime with 315,074 crimes, followed by ‘rape’ (243,051), ‘insult to modesty of women’ (104,151) and ‘dowry death’ (80,833).
The NCRB report also listed three heads, namely commit rape (4,234), abetment of suicide of women (3,734) and protection of women from domestic violence (426) under which cases of crime against women have been reported in 2014.
Andhra Pradesh has reported the most crimes against women (263,839) over the past 10 years.
Andhra Pradesh state is the highest (263,839) to report crimes against women in the period of ten years. Crimes reported for insult (35,733) ranks first followed by cruelty by husband relatives (117,458), assault on women with intent to outrage her modesty (51,376) and dowry-related deaths (5,364).
West Bengal (239,760) is second most crime against women state followed by Uttar Pradesh (236,456), Rajasthan (188,928) and Madhya Pradesh (175,593).
Abduction increased up to three folds over the recent years, with Uttar Pradesh being the worst affected state. Cases rose from 15,750 cases in 2005 to 57,311 cases in 2014.
Prepared by Naina Mishra of Newsgram. Twitter @Nainamishr94
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New Delhi, India, September 8, 2017: At a time when reports of suicides linked to the Blue Whale challenge internet game are sending shock waves through the country, Facebook on Friday said it is working with suicide prevention partners to collect phrases, hashtags and group names associated with online challenges encouraging self-harm or suicide.
“We offer resources to people that search for these terms on Facebook,” the social media giant said.
The Blue Whale challenge is said to psychologically provoke players to indulge in daring, self-destructive tasks for 50 days before finally taking the “winning” step of killing themselves.
Facebook said it also removes content that violates our Community Standards, which do not allow the promotion of self-injury or suicide.
Starting on World Suicide Prevention Day on September 10, Facebook said it would also connect people in India with information about support groups and suicide prevention tools in News Feed.
“Facebook is a place where people connect and share, and one of the things we have learnt from the mental health partners and academics we have worked with on this issue, is that being connected is a protective factor in suicide prevention,” said Ankhi Das, Director of Public Policy for Facebook in India, South and Central Asia.
Additional resources about suicide prevention and online well-being will also be added to its Safety Center, Facebook said.
With these resources, people can access tools to resolve conflict online, help a friend who is expressing suicidal thoughts or get resources if they are going through a difficult time.
“We care deeply about the safety and millions of people in India who use Facebook to connect with the people who matter to them, and recognize there’s an opportunity with these tools and resources to connect someone who is struggling with a person they already have a relationship with,” Das said.
Facebook’s Safety Center also offers guidance for parents, teenagers, educators, and law enforcement officials to start a conversation about online safety, with localized resources and videos available.
People can also reach out to Facebook when they see something that makes them concerned about a friend’s well-being.
“We have teams working around the world, 24/7, who review reports that come in and prioritize the most serious reports of suicide. For those who reach out to us, we provide suggested text to make it easier for people to start a conversation with their friend in need,” Facebook said.
“We provide the friend who has expressed suicidal thoughts information about local help lines, along with other tips and resources,” it added. (IANS)